English-Language Proficiency Requirements for Migration to Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the Implications for Language Testing Research


  • Melissa McLeod Queen's University




language proficiency testing, high-stakes testing, migration, language policy, critical language testing


Language proficiency testing has long played a role as both facilitator and barrier in global migration. This paper outlines how Canada and other traditional migrant destination countries use English-language proficiency testing for immigration, asylum and resettlement, and citizenship. It identifies commonalities between these three related areas of migration and the covert values that are often embedded in the required test scores. It identifies different approaches for conducting research under the umbrella of Shohamy’s (2001) Critical Language Testing and concludes with language testing research and advocacy suggestions specific to the Canadian context.


Alderson, J. C. (2010). A Review of “Discourses on language and integration: critical perspectives on language testing regimes in Europe”. Language and Education, 24(6), p. 538-542. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780903509902

Association of Language Testers in Europe. (2016). Language tests for access, integration and citizenship: An outline for policy makers. Association of Language Testers in Europe. https://ro.alte.org/resources/Documents/LAMI%20Booklet%20EN.pdf

Australian Government Department of Home Affairs. (2021a, January 23). Meeting our requirements: English language. Australian Government. https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/help-support/meeting-our-requirements/english-language

Australian Government Department of Home Affairs. (2021b, January 27). Become an Australian citizen. Australian Government. https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/citizenship/become-a-citizen/permanent-resident#Eligibility

Bachman, L. F. (2005). Building and supporting a case for test use. Language Assessment Quarterly, 2(1), p. 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15434311laq0201_1

Banerjee, R., & Hiebert, D. (2021). Leveraging human resources for long-term prosperity: Expanding pathways to permanence for lower-skill temporary workers in Canada. Canadian Excellence Research Chair in Migration & Integration. https://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/cerc-migration/Policy/CERC_02_PolicyPaper_May2021.pdf

Barros, A. (2020, December 20). Aspiring Americans face tougher citizenship test. VOA News. https://www.voanews.com/usa/immigration/aspiring-americans-face-tougher-citizenship-test

Bennett, R. E. (2010). Cognitively based assessment of, for, and as learning (CBAL): A preliminary theory of action for summative and formative assessment. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research & Perspectives, 8(2-3), 70-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/15366367.2010.508686

Blackledge, A. (2009). “As a country we do expect”: The further extension of language testing regimes in the United Kingdom. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(1), 6-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300802606465

Blommaert, J. (2009). Language, asylum, and the national order. Current Anthropology, 50(4), 415-441. https://doi.org/10.1086/600131

Boyd, M., & Cao, X. (2009). Immigrant language proficiency, earnings, and language policies. Canadian Studies in Population, (36)1–2, 63-86. https://doi.org/10.25336/P6NP62

Burke, R., Thapliyal, N., & Baker, S. (2018). The weaponisation of language: English proficiency, citizenship, and the politics of belonging in Australia. Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis, 7(1), 84-102. https://doi.org/10.31274/jctp-180810-107

Burkholder, C., & Filion, M. (2015). Educating adults for citizenship: Critiquing adequate language practices and Canada’s citizenship test. The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 27(1), 1-13. https://cjsae.library.dal.ca/index.php/cjsae/article/view/3336

Byrne, B. (2017). Testing times: The place of the citizenship test in the UK immigration regime and new citizens’ response to it. Sociology, 51(2), 323-338. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038515622908

Cairney, P. (2019). Evidence and policy making. In A. Boaz, H. Davies, A. Fraser, & S. Nutley (Eds.), What works now?: Evidence-informed policy and practice (pp. 21-40). Policy Press.

Campbell, J. (2013). Language analysis in the United Kingdom’s refugee status determination system: seeing through policy claims about ‘expert knowledge’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(4), 670-690. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2011.634506

Capstick, T. (2021, June 25). Future-proofing language tests for migration purposes: The role of language testing in migration policy [Webinar]. The British Council and the University of Reading.

Carlsen, C. H. (2021, June 25). Future-proofing language tests for migration purposes: Consequences and validation [Webinar]. The British Council and the University of Reading.

Carlsen, C. H., & Rocca, L. (2021). Language test misuse. Language Assessment Quarterly, 18(5), 477-491. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2021.1947288

Carlsen, C. H., & Rocca, L. (2022). Language test activism. Language Policy, 21(3), 597-616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-022-09614-7

Chalhoub-Deville, M. (2016). Validity theory: Reform policies, accountability testing, and consequences. Language Testing, 33(4), 453-472. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532215593312

Chkam, H. (2016). Aid and the perpetuation of refugee camps: The case of Dadaab in Kenya 1991–2011. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 35(2), 79-97. https://doi.org/10.1093/rsq/hdw005

Chowdhury, F. Y., & Hamid, M. O. (2016). Language, migration and social wellbeing: A narrative inquiry into the lives of low English proficiency Bangladeshi migrants in Australia. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 8-30. https://doi.org/10.1075/aral.39.1.01cho

Cummings, M. (2021, June 12). ‘It’s about time’ to update citizenship guide, Assembly of First Nations Alberta chief says. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/about-time-to-update-citizenship-guide-marlene-poitras-says-1.6063133

Dathan, M. (2021, July 17). Five-year work visas for war refugees to fill job shortages. The Times. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/five-year-work-visas-for-war-refugees-to-fill-job-shortages-gm0wlph2m

Deygers, B. (2017). Just testing: Applying theories of justice to high-stakes language tests. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 168(2), 143-162. https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.00001.dey

Eades, D. (2009). Testing the claims of asylum seekers: The role of language analysis. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(1), 30-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300802606523

Fortier, A. M. (2017). On (not) speaking English: Colonial legacies in language requirements for British Citizenship. Sociology, 52(6), 1254-1269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038517742854

Fox, J., & Artemeva, N. (2022). Language assessment in the wild: Storying our transdisciplinary experiences. In J. Fox & N. Artemeva (Eds.), Reconsidering context in language assessment: Transdisciplinary perspectives, social theories, and validity (pp. 253-284). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351184571

Fulcher, G., & Davidson, F. (2007). Language Testing and Assessment: An advanced resource book. New York, USA: Routledge.

Government of Canada. (2020). Agri-food pilot: Language testing. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada/agri-food-pilot/language-testing.html

Government of Canada. (2021a, January 23). Language requirements – skilled immigrants. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada/express-entry/documents/language-requirements.html

Government of Canada. (2021b, January 23). Language equivalency charts. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/operational-bulletins-manuals/standard-requirements/language-requirements/test-equivalency-charts.html

Government of Canada. (2021c, January 25). Six selection factors – Federal Skilled Worker Program (Express Entry). Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada/express-entry/eligibility/federal-skilled-workers/six-selection-factors-federal-skilled-workers.html

Government of Canada. (2021d, January 26). Generic application form for Canada. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/kits/forms/imm0 008enu_2d.pdf

Government of Canada. (2021e, January 26). Schedule 2 refugees outside Canada. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/kits/forms/imm0008_2e.pdf

Government of Canada. (2021f, January 27). Find out if you have the language proof for citizenship: Step 1. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/canadian-citizenship/become-canadian-citizen/eligibility/language-proof.html

Government of Canada. (2021g, January 27). Prepare for the citizenship test and interview. Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/canadian-citizenship/become-canadian-citizen/citizenship-test.html

Government of Canada. (2022, September 28). Canada School of Public Service. Government of Canada. https://www.csps-efpc.gc.ca/index-eng.aspx

Government of the United Kingdom. (2021a, January 23). Prove your English language abilities with a secure English language test (SELT). Government of the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/prove-your-english-language-abilities-with-a-secure-english-language-test-selt#approved-test-providers-and-approved-tests

Government of the United Kingdom. (2021b, January 27). Prove your knowledge of English for citizenship and settling. Government of the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/english-language/approved-english-language-qualifications

Government of the United Kingdom. (2021c, January 27). Prove your knowledge of English for citizenship and settling. Government of the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/english-language/exemptions

Government of the United Kingdom. (2021d, January 27). Life in the UK test. Government of the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/life-in-the-uk-test

Graff, H. J. (2010). The literacy myth at 30. Journal of Social History, 43(3), 635-661. https://doi.org/10.1353/jsh.0.0316

Gysen, S., Kuijper, H., & van Avermaet, P. (2009). Language testing in the context of immigration and citizenship: The case of the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(1), 98-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300802606655

Harding, L., Brunfaut, T., & Unger, J. W. (2020). Language testing in the ‘hostile environment’: The discursive construction of ‘Secure English Language Testing’ in the UK. Applied Linguistics, 41(5), p. 662-687. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amz017

Hawthorne, L. (1997). The political dimension of English language testing in Australia. Language Testing, 14(3), 248-260. https://doi.org/10.1177/026553229701400303

Hoang, N. T. H., & Obaidul Hamid, M. O. (2017). ‘A fair go for all?’ Australia’s language-in-migration policy. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 38(6), 836-850. https://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2016.1199527

Horner, K. (2015). Discourses on language and citizenship in Europe. Language and Linguistics Compass, 9(5), 209-218. https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12133

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship (IRCC) Canada. (2012). Discover Canada: The rights and responsibilities of citizenship. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/discover-canada.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship (IRCC) Canada. (2020a). The Economic Mobility Pathways Project Executive Summary. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/documents/pdf/english/corporate/reports-statistics/evaluations/the-economic-mobility-pathways-project.pdf

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (2020b). Evaluation of the Citizenship Program. Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada Research and Evaluation Branch. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/reports-statistics/evaluations/eval-citizenship-2013-2018.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (June 18, 2021a). Canada announces 3 new initiatives to welcome and support more refugees. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2021/06/canada-announces-3-new-initiatives-to-welcome-and-support-more-refugees.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (December 21, 2021b). Canada welcomes the most immigrants in a single year in its history. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2021/12/canada-welcomes-the-most-immigrants-in-a-single-year-in-its-history.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (February 14, 2022a). New immigration plan to fill labour market shortages and grow Canada’s economy. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2022/02/new-immigration-plan-to-fill-labour-market-shortages-and-grow-canadas-economy.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (March 30, 2022b). Canada expands settlement support to Ukrainians coming to Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2022/03/canada-expands-settlement-support-for-ukrainians-coming-to-canada.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (November 9, 2022c). Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) Criteria – Express Entry. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada/express-entry/eligibility/criteria-comprehensive-ranking-system/grid.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (May 12, 2023a). Designated language testing organizations. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/operational-bulletins-manuals/standard-requirements/language-requirements/designated-testing-agencies.html

Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (March 27, 2023b). Tackling the labour shortage by helping more skilled refugees and other displaced people build their careers in Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2023/03/tackling-the-labour-shortage-by-helping-more-skilled-refugees-and-other-displaced-people-build-their-careers-in-canada.html

International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2020). World Migration Report 2020. https://publications.iom.int/books/world-migration-report-2020

Juha, J. (2021, April 29). Ottawa offers migrant workers new path to permanent residency. The London Free Press. https://lfpress.com/news/local-news/ottawa-offers-migrant-workers-new-path-to-permanent-residency

Keung, N. (2021, June 23). ‘Forgotten Canadians’ are paying a price for delays in processing their citizenship papers. A new study reveals the real cost. The Toronto Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2021/06/23/we-are-the-forgotten-canadians-delayed-citizenship-processing-during-covid-19-is-affecting-job-opportunities-and-wages-applicants-say.html

Khan, K. (2019). Becoming a citizen: Linguistic trials and negotiations in the UK. Bloomsbury.

Khan, K., & McNamara, T. (2017). Citizenship, immigration laws, and language. In S. Canagarajah (Ed.) The Routledge handbook of migration and language (pp. 451-467). Routledge.

Kikulwe, D., Massing, C., Ghadi, N., Giesbrecht, C. J., & Halabuza, D. (2021). From independence to dependence: Experiences of Syrian refugees. International Migration, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12825

Knoch, U. (2021, June 25). Future-proofing language tests for migration purposes: The role of language testing in migration policy [Webinar]. The British Council and the University of Reading.

Kostakopoulou, D. (2010). Matters of control: Integration tests, naturalisation reform and probationary citizenship in the United Kingdom. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5), p. 829-846. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691831003764367

Kunnan, A. J. (2004). Test fairness. In M. Milanovic & C. J. Weir (Eds.), Studies in Language Testing 18: European language testing in a global context (pp. 27-48). Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/329229-studies-in-language-testing-volume-18.pdf

Kunnan, A. J. (2008). Towards a model of test evaluation: Using the Test Fairness and the Text Contexts Frameworks. In L. Taylor & C. J. Weir (Eds.), Studies in Language Testing 27: Multilingualism and Assessment (pp. 229-251). Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/329231-studies-in-language-testing-volume-27.pdf

Kunnan, A. J. (2009). Testing for citizenship: The US naturalization test. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(1), 89-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300802606630

Labman, S. (2019). Crossing law’s border: Canada’s refugee resettlement program. University of British Columbia Press.

Liu, X. F. (1996). A case study of the labor market status of recent mainland Chinese immigrants, metropolitan Toronto. International Migration, 34(4), 583-607. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.1996.tb00546.x

Loring, A. (2013). The meaning of citizenship: Tests, policies, and English proficiency. The CATESOL Journal, 24(1), 198-219. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1111860.pdf

Lundy, M., & McMahon, T. (2021, February 16). Ottawa goes on immigration blitz, lowers cut-off score. Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/article-ottawa-goes-on-blitz-to-boost-immigration-make-up-for-pandemic-induced/

McLean, L. (2004). “To become part of us”: Ethnicity, race, literacy and the Canadian immigration act of 1919. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 36(2), 1-28.

McNamara, T. (2005). 21st century shibboleth: Language tests, identity and intergroup conflict. Language Policy, 4(4), 351-370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-005-2886-0

McNamara, T. (2009). Australia: The dictation test redux. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(1), 106-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300802606663

McNamara, T. (2011). Managing learning: Authority and language assessment. Language Teaching, 44(4), 500-515. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000073

McNamara, T., & Ryan, K. (2011). Fairness versus justice in language testing: The place of English literacy in the Australian citizenship test. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8(2), 161-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2011.565438

McNamara, T., & Shohamy, E. (2008). Language tests and human rights. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18(1), 89-95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2008.00191.x

Migrant Rights Network. (2021). Exclusion, disappointment, chaos & exploitation: Canada’s new short-term immigration pathway. https://migrantrights.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Final-Exclusion-Disappointment-Chaos-Exploitation-.pdf

Migration Policy Institute. (2020). Top 25 destinations of international migrants. Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/data-hub/charts/top-25-destinations-international-migrants

Nakache, D., & Dixon-Perera, L. (2015). Temporary or transitional? Migrant workers’ experiences with permanent residence in Canada. Institute for Research on Public Policy, 55. https://irpp.org/research-studies/temporary-or-transitional/

Omidvar, R. (2021, June 10). Bill C-8: Asking the Minister of Immigration about the new citizenship oath. Ratna Omidvar: Independent senator for Ontario – Senate of Canada. http://www.ratnaomidvar.ca/bill-c8-asking-the-minister-of-immigration-about-the-new-citizenship-oath/

O’Sullivan, B. (2021a, April 30). Can tests be fair and valid? [Plenary presentation]. ALTE 1st International Digital Symposium. https://www.alte.org/DigitalSymposium2021-videos

O’Sullivan, B. (2021b, June 25). Future-proofing language tests for migration purposes: Consequences and validation [Webinar]. The British Council and the University of Reading.

Patrick, P. L. (2012). Language analysis for determination of origin: Objective evidence for refugee status determination. In L. M. Solan & P. M. Tiersma (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language and law (pp. 533-546). Oxford University Press.

Peterson, G. (2010). “Education changes the world”: The world university service of Canada’s student refugee program. Refuge, 27(2), 111-121. https://doi.org/10.25071/1920-7336.34728

Piller, I. (2001). Naturalization language testing and its basis in ideologies of national identity and citizenship. The International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(3), 259-277. https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069010050030201

Prokopenko, E. (2018). Refugees and Canadian post-secondary education: Characteristics and economic outcomes in comparison. Statistics Canada. https://www.150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-657-x/89-657-x2018001-eng.htm

Refugee Sponsorship Training Program. (2021, March 19). Sponsorship Agreement Holders. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from http://www.rstp.ca/en/refugee-sponsorship/sponsorship-agreement-holders/

Rehaag, S. (2023). Can AI pass Canada’s citizenship test? Slaw. https://www.slaw.ca/2023/01/27/can-ai-pass-canadas-citizenship-test/

Rodriguez, J. (2021, May 4). Thousands left out of plan to give workers permanent residency: Migrant Rights Network. CTV News. https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/thousands-left-out-of-plan-to-give-workers-permanent-residency-migrant-rights-network-1.5414144?utm_medium=trueAnthem&taid=6091d66acd14980001d873ca&utm_campaign=trueAnthem%3A+Trending+Content&utm_source=twitter&cid=sm%3Atrueanthem%3A%7B%7Bcampaignname%7D%7D%3Atwitterpost%E2%80%8B

Salami, B., Juen, J., Foster, J., Okeke-Ihejirika, P., Valliantos, H., Alaazi, D., Piper, N., Tulli, M., Daria, M., Baca, M., Silang, E., & Brnada, Z. (2021). Migration and precarity: From the temporary foreign worker program to undocumented status. University of Alberta Kule Institute. https://www.ualberta.ca/nursing/media-library/research/migration-and-health/migration-and-precarity-policy-brief-final.pdf

Saville, N. (2009). Language assessment in the management of international migration: A framework for considering the issues. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(1), 17-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300802606499

Saville, N. (2021, June 25). Future-proofing language tests for migration purposes: Constructs, operationalization, reliability and bias [Webinar]. The British Council and the University of Reading.

Shohamy, E. (2001). Democratic assessment as an alternative. Language Testing, 18(4), 373- 391. https://doi.org/10.1177/026553220101800404

Shohamy, E. (2006). Language policy: Hidden agendas and new approaches. Routledge.

Shohamy, E. (2013). The discourse of language testing as a tool for shaping national, global, and transnational identities. Language and Intercultural Communication, 13(2), 225-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2013.770868

Shohamy, E., & McNamara, T. (2009). Language tests for immigration, citizenship, and asylum. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300802606440

Slade, C. (2010). Shifting landscapes in citizenship. In C. Slade & M. Möllering (Eds.), From migrant to citizen: Testing language, testing culture (pp. 3-23). Palgrave Macmillan.

Smith, C. D., & Wagner, D. (2021). How Canada can address skills shortages by improving access to economic pathways for refugees and displaced people in Latin America. Canadian Excellence Research Chair in Migration & Integration. https://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/cerc-migration/Policy/Final_PB_Smith_Wagner_April19.pdf

Statistics Canada. (2005). Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada. The Daily. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/051013/dq051013b-eng.htm

Strik, T., Böcker, A., Luiten, M., & van Oers, R. (2010). The INTEC project: Synthesis report. Radboud University Nijmegen. https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/library-document/intec-project-integration-and-naturalisation-tests-new-way-european-citizenship-6_en

The Canadian Press. (2021, April 22). Retaking language tests unfair during Covid-19: Applicants to new residency pathway. Toronto City News. https://toronto.citynews.ca/2021/04/22/retaking-language-test-unfair-during-covid-19-applicants-to-new-residency-pathway/

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2010). Convention and protocol relating to the status of refugees. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. https://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2019). Stepping up: Refugee education in crisis. https://www.unhcr.org/steppingup/

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). (2021, March 1). Resettlement. https://www.unhcr.org/resettlement.html#:~:text=Resettlement%20is%20the%20transfer%20of,ultimately%20grant%20them%20permanent%20residence.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2021, January 27). The 2020 version of the civics test. U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. https://uscis.gov/citizenship/2020test

Wallace Goodman, S., & Wright, M. (2015). Does mandatory integration matter? Effects of civic requirements on immigrant socio-economic and political outcomes. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(12), 1885-1908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1042434

Yalnizyan, A. (2021, March 6). Our temporary residents provide a resource we can’t ignore. The Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2021/03/06/our-temporary-residents-provide-a-resource-we-cant-ignore.html




How to Cite

McLeod, M. (2023). English-Language Proficiency Requirements for Migration to Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the Implications for Language Testing Research. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26(1), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.37213/cjal.2023.32825