Deglaciation of Penobscot Bay, Maine, USA
The Pond Ridge and Pineo Ridge moraines in downeast Maine likely formed at ~16.1 and ~15.7 ka respectively, during cold episodes recorded by δ18O dips in the GRIP ice core. The elapsed time between these ages is broadly consistent with retreat rates recorded by intervening De Geer moraines, which are readily visible on LiDAR imagery and are believed to be approximately annual. North-northwestward from the southwesterly extension of the Pond Ridge moraine there are three pairs of prominent moraines that are relatively continuous across the study area and could be reliably extrapolated across intervening water bodies. Retreat rates recorded by De Geer moraines suggest that these pairs formed at 15.7-15.8 ka, 15.5-15.6 ka, and ~15.5 ka. Although retreat appears to have occurred slightly faster across Penobscot Bay, a significant calving bay does not seem to have developed there. Instead, the ice margin remained relatively straight, retreating to the north-northwest. De Geer moraines become more widely spaced northward and vanish after ~15.5 ka when the ice margin was north of the head of Penobscot Bay and of Pineo Ridge. This likely reflects higher retreat rates during the initial phases of the Bølling warm period. Just south of Pineo Ridge there were two ice lobes; one retreated to the north and one to the northwest. The latter retreated more rapidly, while the former experienced numerous minor readvances and stillstands until finally pausing at the location of Pineo Ridge. A stillstand of this lobe then resulted in deposition of the Pineo Ridge moraine complex.
How to Cite
All material contained in Atlantic Geology is copyrighted by the journal. Permission to photocopy for internal or personal use or for the internal or personal use of specific clients is granted by Atlantic Geology to libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), provided that the stated fee per copy is paid directly to the CCC, 21 Congress Street, Salem, Massachusetts 01970 USA. Other requests should be addressed to one of the journal editors, or sent to Atlantic Geology, Box 116, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6. Permission to use a single graphic for which Atlantic Geology owns copyright is considered “fair dealing” under the Canadian Copyright Act and “fair use” by the journal, and no other permission need be granted, subject to the image being appropriately cited in all reproductions. The same fair dealing/fair use policy applies to sections of text up to 100 words in length.