Examining Teacher Candidates’ Pedagogical Practices and Stances Towards Translanguaging and Multimodality in Writing


  • Shakina Rajendram Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6403-753X
  • Jennifer Burton Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto
  • Wales Wong Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto
  • Jeff Bale Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto




translanguaging, teacher education, multiliteracies, English language learners, multilingual learners, writing


This study examines pre-service teacher candidates’ (TCs) stances and use of translanguaging and multimodality to support K-12 multilingual learners’ writing. Data were drawn from a course on supporting multilingual learners in a teacher education program in Ontario. Data sources were responses to the Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Language- Inclusive Teaching (PeCK–LIT) Test, and TCs’ unit plans and lesson plans. Analytical codes were derived from the literature on translanguaging: monolingual and translanguaging stance, translanguaging as a scaffold and resource, teacher-directed and student-directed, intentional and spontaneous translanguaging, and supporting monomodality and multimodality. Findings demonstrate the use of translanguaging strategies such as multilingual word walls and online translation tools. However, there were constraints to TCs’ stances, such as allowing translanguaging as a temporary scaffold towards English-only instruction and approaching writing as a discrete rather than multimodal skill. The paper recommends ways TCs can be supported in developing a holistic understanding of translanguaging and multimodality.

Author Biographies

Shakina Rajendram, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Dr. Shakina Rajendram is an Assistant Professor, Teaching Stream, Coordinator of the Language Teaching field, and Course and Curriculum Development Lead for Supporting English Language Learners at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), University of Toronto, Canada. Shakina has over 12 years of experience teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) to linguistically and culturally diverse students in the K-12 and higher education levels. Her current teaching and research focus on teacher education, translanguaging and multiliteracies pedagogies, and supporting multilingual learners in K-12 and higher education contexts internationally.

Jennifer Burton, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Jennifer Burton is a PhD candidate in the Language and Literacies Education Program at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), University of Toronto, Canada. She has over 13 years of language teaching experience in Canada and abroad. Her research and teaching interests center on creative and critical pedagogies in higher education. Jennifer’s dissertation examines student and teacher experiences with spoken word poetry in an English for Academic Purposes course.

Wales Wong, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Wales Wong is a PhD candidate in the Language and Literacies Education Program at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), University of Toronto, Canada. She specializes in English as a Second Language (ESL) education at the secondary level and has taught adolescents and adults for the past 15 years. Her current research focuses on the development and implementation of translanguaging pedagogies to support plurilingual adult learners in continuing education programs.

Jeff Bale, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Dr. Jeff Bale is an Associate Professor of Language and Literacies Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), University of Toronto. His research applies political economic, antiracist, and critical perspectives on language policies in education and teacher education. Currently, he serves as an Associate Editor for the International Multilingual Research Journal and the Journal of Teacher Education.


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How to Cite

Rajendram, S., Burton, J., Wong, W., & Bale, J. (2022). Examining Teacher Candidates’ Pedagogical Practices and Stances Towards Translanguaging and Multimodality in Writing. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 25(3), 33–65. https://doi.org/10.37213/cjal.2022.32597