On Common Ground

Nunavik Inuit in Nunatsiavut, 1763–1942


  • Barnett Richling


“On Common Ground” presents findings of research commissioned by Makivik Corporation in support of Nunavik Inuit claims to rights and interests in neighbouring Nunatsiavut, claims recognized in the 2006 Nunavik Inuit Land Claim Agreement. The original study ex-amined Nunavimmiut patterns of use and occupation in Labrador during the pre- and post-contact eras. Here, the scope is limited to the period after 1763 and focuses on an area spanning eastern Ungava Bay and the Torngat coast. The paper argues that these patterns encompass linked social and economic dimensions of a centuries-deep adaptation to the different subsistence potentials found across the area and are not simply consequences of the rise of colonial institutions.


Badgley, Ian. 2000. “Pre-contact Inuit Archaeology in Nunavik and North- ern Labrador: Review and Assessment of Inter-regional Contact and Interaction.” Preliminary report presented to Hutchins, Soroka, & Dionne, Montréal.

Budgell, Anne. 2018. We All Expected to Die: Spanish Influenza in Labrador, 1918–1919. St. John’s: ISER Books.

Burgess, Helen. 1967. “Killinek — Turning Point.” North 14, no. 6: 20–23. Castro, Javi. 2018. “The Basque Seal Trade with Labrador in the Seventeenth Century.” Newfoundland and Labrador Studies 33, no. 1: 63–82.

Cooke, Alan. 1964. “The Ungava Venture of the Hudson’s Bay Company, 1830–43.” PhD diss., University of Cambridge.

Curtis, Roger. 1774. “Particulars of the Country of Labradore, Extracted from the Papers of Lieutenant Roger Curtis of His Majesty’s Sloop the Otter . . .” Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 64: 372–88.

Danker, William J. 2002. Profit for the Lord: Economic Activities in Moravian Missions and the Basil Trading Company. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Davies, K.G., ed. 1963. Northern Quebec and Labrador Journals and Correspondence, 1819–35. London: Hudson’s Bay Record Society.

Dorais, Louis-Jacques. 1997. Quaqtaq: Modernity and Identity in an Inuit Community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Fossett, Renée. 2001. In Order to Live Untroubled: Inuit of the Central Arctic, 1550 to 1940. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.

Gendron, Daniel, and Claude Pinard. 2000. “Early Palaeo-Eskimo Occupations in Nunavik: A Reappraisal.” In Identities and Cultural Contacts in the Arctic, edited by M. Appelt et al., pp. 129–42. Danish Polar Center Publications 8. Copenhagen: Danish National Museum.

Graburn, Nelson H.H. 1969. Eskimos without Igloos: Social and Economic Development in Sugluk. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Great Britain. Privy Council, Judicial Committee. 1927. “Royal Proclamation of 7th October, 1763.” In In the Matter of the Boundary between the Dominion of Canada and the Colony of Newfoundland in the Labrador Peninsula. 1: 153–57. London: William Clowes and Sons.

Guemple, Lee. 1972. “Introduction.” In Alliance in Eskimo Society, edited by L. Guemple, pp. 1–16. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Hamilton, J. Taylor, and Kenneth G. Hamilton. 1967. History of the Moravian Church: The Renewed Unitas Fratrum, 1722–1957. Bethlehem, PA: Interprovincial Board of Christian Education, Moravian Church in America.

Haven, Jens. 1773. “A Brief Account of the Dwelling Places of the Esquimaux to the North of Nagvack to Hudson’s Straits, Their Situation and Subsistence.” Transcription on file at Centre for Newfoundland Studies, Memorial University.

Hawkes, F.W. 1916. The Labrador Eskimo. Geological Survey Memoir 91, Anthropological Series 14. Ottawa: King’s Printer.

Hiller, James. 1997. “The Labrador Boundary.” https://www.heritage.nf.ca/ articles/politics/labrador-boundary.php (accessed 11 May 2022).

Hutton, S.K. 1912. Among the Eskimos of Labrador. A Record of Five Years Close Intercourse with the Eskimo Tribes of Labrador. Toronto: Musson Book Company.

Kohlmeister, Benjamin, and George Kmoch. 1814. Journal of a Voyage from Okkak on the Coast of Labrador to Ungava Bay Westward of Cape Chudleigh. London: W. M’Dowall, for the Brethren’s Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen. http://www.guten- berg.org/files/15436/15436-h/15436-h.htm (accessed 20 May 2022).

Labrèche, Yves. 2012. “Les Thuléens.” In Histoire du Nord-du-Québec, edited by R. Girard, pp. 70–100. Québec: Les Presses de l’Université Laval.

Loring, Stephen. 1998. “The Archaeology of Eskimo Hütte (IkDb-2): Inuit Sovereignty in the Torngat.” Études Inuit Studies 22, no. 2: 53–76.

MacGregor, Sir William. 1910. Reports of His Excellency Sir William MacGregor . . . of Official Visits to Labrador, 1905 & 1908. St. John’s.

Morantz, Toby. 2016. Relations on Ungava Bay: An Illustrated History of Inuit, Naskapi, and European Interaction, 1800–1970. Montreal: Avataq Cultural Institute.

Murricane, Kenneth. 1977. “The Influence of Government Trading Operations on the Economic Base of Northern Labrador Inuit Communities, 1942–1975.” Unpublished report. Copy on file at the Department of Rural, Agricultural and Northern Development, St. John’s.

Plumet, Patrick, and Pierre Gangloff. 1991. Contribution à l’archéologie et l’ethnohistoire de l’ungava oriental: côte est, Killiniq, iles Button, Labrador septentrional. Université du Québec à Montreal, Laboratoire d’archéol- ogie, Paléo-Quebéc no. 19.

Pope, Peter. 2015. “Bretons, Basques, and Inuit in Labrador and Northern Newfoundland: The Control of Maritime Resources in the 16th and 17th Centuries.” Études Inuit Studies 39, no. 1: 15–36.

Richling, Barnett. 2002. “Inuit Land Use and Occupation in the Quebec–Labrador Peninsula.” Report prepared on behalf of the Makivik Corporation.

Rowley, Susan. 1985. “Population Movements in the Canadian Arctic.” Études Inuit Studies 9, no. 1: 3–21.

Saladin D’Anglure, Bernard. 1984. “Inuit of Quebec.” In Handbook of North American Indians vol. 5. Arctic, edited by David Damas, pp. 476–507. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Scheffel, David. 1980. “The Demographic Consequences of European Contact with Labrador Inuit, 1800–1919.” MA thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Smith, Eric Alden. 1991. Inujjuamiut Foraging Strategies: Evolutionary Ecology of an Arctic Hunting Economy. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Taylor, J.G. 1974. Labrador Eskimo Settlements of the Early Contact Period.

National Museum of Man, Publications in Ethnology 9. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada

Taylor, J.G. 1975. “Demography and Adaptations of Eighteenth-Century Eskimo Groups in Northern Labrador and Ungava.” In Prehistoric Maritime Adaptations of the Circumpolar Zone, edited by W. Fitzhugh, pp. 269–78. Paris: Mouton

Trudel, François. 1978. “Le Inuit du Labrador Méridional face á l’exploita- tion canadienne et française des pêcheries (1700–1760).” Revue d’Histoire de l’Amerique Française 31, no. 4: 481–99.

Trudel, François. 1991. “‘Mais ils ont si Peu de besoins’: Les Inuit de la baie d’Ungava et la traite à Fort Chimo (1830–1843).” Anthropologie et Sociétés 15, no. 1: 89–124.

Turner, Lucien. 1979. Ethnology of the Ungava District, Hudson Bay Territory. Québec: Presses Coméditex [originally published 1894].

Ülgen, Özlem. 2008a. “James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement.” In Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty, vol. 2, edited by D. Fixico, pp. 395–96. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO.

Ülgen, Özlem. 2008b. “Calder v. Attorney General of British Columbia (Canada), 1973.” In Treaties with American Indians: An Encyclopedia of Rights, Conflicts, and Sovereignty, vol. 2, edited by D. Fixico, pp. 701–02. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO.

Val, Erik. 1976. “Inuit Land Use in the Port Burwell Area.” In Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project, vol. 1, Land Use and Occupancy, edited by M.M.R. Freeman, pp. 121–22. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.

Vezinet, Monique. 1982. Occupation humaine de l’Ungava: Perspective ethnohistorique et écologique. Laboratoire d’archéologie de l’Université du Québec à Montréal, Collection Paléo-Québec 14.




How to Cite

Richling, B. (2023). On Common Ground: Nunavik Inuit in Nunatsiavut, 1763–1942. Newfoundland & Labrador Studies, 37(1). Retrieved from https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/NFLDS/article/view/33491