Visualizing Crisis Management: Crisis Experience, Concern, and Training in China


  • John A. Parnell University of North Alabama,
  • William “Rick” Crandall University of North Carolina at Pembroke
  • Long Zhang China University of Geosciences
  • Yuanyuan Lin University of South Alabama



Crisis management, crisis training, China, SOE, behavioral economics


China’s increasing international prominence has prompted additional research on how Chinese firms manage organizational crises. The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of concerns and experiences with crises in China. We report on a survey of 105 managers and non-managers in China about their experience and concern with crises in their firms. Our analysis underscores three key findings. First, one's concern about a crisis is strongly associated with one's experience involving that crisis. Second, views about crisis experience and concern differ between employees in state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-SOEs. Finally, despite these differences, perspectives on crisis training among SOE and non-SOE firms are similar. This paper augments the literature by identifying relationships among crisis experience, crisis concern, and training in Chinese organizations.

Author Biographies

John A. Parnell, University of North Alabama,

John A. Parnell is a Professor of Management and Alumni Eminent Scholar of Business at the University of North Alabama. He has authored over 250 articles in strategic management and two current textbooks, Strategic Management: Theory and Practice, and Crisis Management: Leading in the New Strategy Landscape. Dr. Parnell earned undergraduate and graduate degrees from East Carolina University, the Ed.D. degree from Campbell University, and the Ph.D. degree from The University of Memphis. He has lectured in China, Mexico, Peru, and Egypt. His current research focuses on issues related to competitive business strategies, nonmarket strategy, crisis management and ethics.

William “Rick” Crandall, University of North Carolina at Pembroke

William “Rick” Crandall, PhD., University of Memphis, is professor of management in the Thomas School of Business at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke.  Dr. Crandall’s primary research area is in the field of organizational crisis management.  His articles on crisis management have appeared in SAM Advanced Management Journal, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Internal Auditing, Business Horizons, International Journal of Sustainable Strategic Management, Security Management, and the International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management.  Dr. Crandall has addressed various audiences on crisis management in the United States, Austria, China, Germany, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

Long Zhang, China University of Geosciences

Long Zhang is a professor in the School of Humanities and Economic Management at China University of Geosciences-Beijing. He earned the Ph.D. in the field of Resource and Environmental Management from China University of Geosciences-Beijing. Dr. Zhang has authored over 50 articles in crisis management, resource and environmental management, and strategic management. His primary research domain includes resource and environmental management, crisis management, and general business management.

Yuanyuan Lin, University of South Alabama

Yuanyuan Lin is a Ph.D. student at the University of South Alabama. Her research focuses are strategic management, crisis management, and entrepreneurship. Before pursuing her doctoral studies, she earned a BA in Psychology and an MBA from the University of North Carolina at Pembroke (UNCP) and completed an internship at the Small Business Technology Development Center (SBTDC). Yuanyuan also has extensive teaching experience as an adjunct instructor at UNCP.


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How to Cite

Parnell, J. A., Crandall, W. “Rick”, Zhang, L., & Lin, Y. (2023). Visualizing Crisis Management: Crisis Experience, Concern, and Training in China. Journal of Comparative International Management, 26(1), 35–64.



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