Notes and Comments / Nouvelles brèves - Notes and Comments / Nouvelles Brèves

Notes and Comments / Nouvelles brèves

Notes and Comments / Nouvelles Brèves

67 NOTES AND COMMENTS - NOUVELLES BREVES WAR MEMORIALS IN CANADIAN COMMUNITIES The goal of this project has been to gather as much information as possible concerning the origin, history, artistic aspects, and present state of war memorials in Canada and to offer an interpretation of their significance. In response to information requests in Heritage Canada magazine, the Royal Canadian Legion's journal, the Archivist's Newsletter and other publications, hundreds of letters from individuals and institutions have reached me. During the summer of 1978 I travelled over 16,000 miles from Newfoundland to British Columbia gathering data and photographing memorials. To date I have documented about 1,200 individual monuments. For some memorials only a picture or description has been found while for others fairly extensive background material is available. This includes the records of memorial committees, correspondence with sculptors, newspaper accounts, and my own interviews with . people who were involved in the construction of the memorials.I have published several articles in both scholarly journals and the popular press based on this research and the National Film Board is considering a film on the subject. I am now preparing a book, heavily illustrated and intended for a wide audience, that will describe the people who built the monuments, why they did so, and what meaning memorials had then and continue to have now. When these projects are completed the collection, consisting of file cards of each monument by place name, ten volumes of cross-referenced subsidiary material, and a few thousand pictures, will be placed in the Public Archives of Canada. It will constitute the only extensive compilation of information on the subject of Canadian war memorials. 68 I first began work on monuments after leaving the Armed Forces in 1976. My visual fascination with monuments as subjects for drawing and painting combined with my historical background and desire to write when I found out that virtually nothing had ever been said about memorials in Canada. This seemed particularly odd in light of their omnipresence in our towns and cities. A great deal of understanding about Canada can be gained by studying and interpreting the material aspects of our past.It is hoped that the articles and the book will stimulate further investigation in the fields of art and architectural history, community planning, social history, and popular symbolism. I have been helped immeasurably by the efforts of: Explorations Programme of the Canada Council; Writers' Assistance Programme of the Ontario Arts Council;Ian Montagnes, Editor, University of Toronto Press; the countless people who have talked to me on the main streets of the country and who have taken the time to write and send me information; my friends. Robert Shipley PARKS CANADA, PRAIRIE REGION Historical Research Division The Historical Research Division of Parks Canada, Prairie Regional Office in Winnipeg, was established in 1975 as part of the decentralization of Parks into five regions. The headquarters division in Ottawa retained responsibility for research on national themes, while the regional offices were to work closely with the sites and the parks on site-specific research. 69 The Prairie Region has responsibility for sites in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and northern Alberta as well as in the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The geographical distribution of sites does not conform absolutely to political divisions since both the Gold Rush Trail and Wood Buffalo Park straddle provincial boundaries. The region has four National Historic Parks: Fort Battleford, Fort Walsh, Lower Fort Garry, and Prince of Wales' Fort. Its jurisdiction also includes several historic sites: the S.S. Klondike, the Gold Rush Trail, and Klondike National Historic Sites (including Dawson City and surrounding gold creeks); Batoche, Fish Creek, the Motherwell Homestead, Wood Buffalo Park, and the Grey Owl Cabin Site in Saskatchewan; Prince of Wales' Fort, York Factory, Lower Fort Garry, St. Andrews Rectory, the Red River-Assiniboine River Junction, and Riel House in Manitoba. In addition, historic plaques and markers are scattered throughout these provinces and territories. The designation of new sites is an ongoing process which occurs through the auspices of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board. The Prairie Region has seven staff historians and a research assistant, each with thematic responsibilities: Dr. Frits Pannekoek, Chief of the Historical Research Division;Ian Clarke, Head of Northern Site Research — history of northern mining technology;Dr. Richard Stuart, Regional Structural Historian — structural and materials history;Lyle Dick — Motherwell Homestead and the post-fur trade prairie West;Walter Hildebrandt— Fort Walsh, Fort Battleford, the R.C.M.P.;Diane Payment — Batoche, Riel House, Métis and native history;Greg Thomas — fur trade sites with special reference to Lower Fort Garry;Laura McLauchlan, Research Assistant in charge of the Historical Research Photograph Collection. 70 Contractors also have been engaged for specific projects. In general staff historians carry out work involving continuing liaison with other divisions, such as Planning, Interpretation, and Engineering and Architecture while contractors tend to concentrate on thematic studies rather than structural or materials histories. Recently a five-year plan has been developed in order to integrate the resources of the division with the development of sites. The plan also attempts to define the various types of appropriate historical research such as structural, land use, materials, contextual and background, and to set standards of research depending upon the proposed level of site development. The plan attempts to bring to the planning and development of National Historic Sites the same rigour that has influenced the natural parks. All research undertaken has an applied function, whether it be land acquisition, planning, restoration, or interpretation. All research is designed to support Parks Canada's mandate to identify, protect, understand, and use Canada's historic resources. Such directed research, however, does not mean that what is done is merely utilitarian "house history." Although the immediate audience must of necessity be other divisions within Parks Canada, attention is also paid to the community at large. Papers have been presented to the Manitoba Historical Society, Canadian History Association of Winnipeg, Northern Plains Conference, Canadian Historical Association, Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada, and Institute for Popular Culture. Articles have also been published in Saskatchewan History, The Beaver, and Prairie Forum. Further to the publications listed below, the following historical research projects are in progress: a) Northern History Ian Clarke, "At the Jaws of the Bear: A History of Bear Creek Mining." 71 Richard Stuart, "The British North America Bank Building, Dawson: A Structural History." , "The Annex to the Commissioner's Residence, Dawson: A Structural History." , "Three Structural Histories: The 'Red Feather* Saloon, The N.W.M.P. Married Officers' Quarters, and the K.T.M. Co. Warehouse." , "The S.S. Klondike Cargo Hold Material History." Hal Guest, "Four Essays on Dawson." Richard Friesen, "The Yukon River: Historical Themes and Resources Study." Ken Coates, "The Northern Yukon: Historical Themes and Resources Study." b) Twentieth-Century West Lyle Dick, "Motherwell: A Social History of the Abernethy District, 1880-1920, Historiography, Methodology and Bibliography." Lyle Dick and Jean-Claude Lebeuf, "Social History in Architecture: The Stone House of W.R. Motherwell." Sarah Carter, "Motherwell Material History." c) National Parks Allan Wright, "The History of the Kluane Park Region." Barry Potyondi, "Wood Buffalo National Park: An Historic Overview." James Shortt, "Grey Owl: A Biography." d) Métis Diane Payment, "Riel House: Home and Lifestyle at St. Vital." Brian Dawson, "The Clergy at Batoche to 1885." e) Fur Trade Rodger Guinn, "The Forts at the Junction." 72 Rodger Guinn, "An Historical Assessment of Four Structures in the Canadian National Railways East Yards, Winnipeg, Manitoba." Gregory Thomas, "The Bake Ovens at Lower Fort Garry." Michael Payne, "Prince of Wales's Fort: A Social History." f) R.C.M.P. Walter Hildebrandt, "Fort Battleford Officer's Quarters." , "Meaning in Architecture: The Building of the N.W.M.P. at Fort Battleford." , "Fort Battleford Social History." , "The Materials History of the Commissioner's Residence, Fort Walsh." Roger Letourneau, "A Structural History of the Commissioner's Residence, Fort Walsh, circa 1880." Archaeological Research Division The division carries out the archaeological research programme in the Prairie Region and is responsible for historic and prehistoric remains in all National Parks and National Historic Parks and Sites in the region. It ensures that all archaeological remains are properly protected and managed; it conducts research to meet regional needs relating to land acquisitions, planning, development, interpretation,and management; and it maintains a research facility capable of handling all archaeological research functions. At present the staff consists of nine archaeologists and archaeological assistants and three material culture researchers under the supervision of John Combes, Chief of the division. Generally each archaeologist is responsible for a project involving research of a specific area or site. One archaeologist is also designated to handle emergency or salvage situations. Research is currently underway on York Factory, Batoche, and Dawson City and vicinity. Archaeological surveys are also being carried out in Kluane National Park and the Arctic, the latter 73 Excavated foundation of a small building at Lower Fort Garry, Manitoba, which illustrates the extent of structural remains which can be found as well as a variety of more recent disturbances to which they can be subjected. (Photo: Prairie Regional Office, Parks Canada, neg. no. 1K-833M.) in cooperation with the Polar Continental Shelf project and the Northwest Territories Government. An archaeological assessment in the northern Yukon Territory is scheduled. Research undertaken in the past concerned the sites of Fort Walsh, Lower Fort Garry, Riel House, and the Motherwell Homestead. Archaeological surveys have been made in Nahanni National Park, Prince Albert National Park, Riding Mountain National Park, the Chilkoot Trail area, and the Churchill area. The division has also supported studies of the linear mounds area in southwestern Manitoba and 74 the Gray site, a large prehistoric burial area in southwestern Saskatchewan. Material culture research is conducted on the large number and variety of artifacts recovered by the various projects and is organized into major categories based on material — ceramic, glass, and metal. Some research has been done on contract and some collections have been loaned out for study. The research facility maintained by the division includes large quantities of notes, drawings, and photographs created by each project; the photographic collection, for instance, now exceeds 7,000 items. These serve not only as a basis for the preparation of project reports but remain available as sources for any future research questions. The results of such archaeological research, whether in the form of an environmental impact statement, a report on an intensive excavation, or a report on a collection of artifacts, are prepared primarily in support of Parks Canada activities. They are, however, also shared with the larger professional community and the general public through papers presented to organizations such as the Manitoba Historical Society, Manitoba Archaeological Society, Association of Manitoba Archaeologists, Southwestern Manitoba Archaeological Society, Saskatchewan Archaeological Society, Canadian Archaeological Association, Society for Historical Archaeology, and Yukon Heritage and Museums Association. Publications I. Manuscript Report Series (on deposit in the Public Archives of Canada and the provincial archives). MRS 171 Robert Gosman, "The Riel and Lagimodiere Families in Métis Society, 1840-1860; Riel House, St. Vital, Manitoba." 186p. MRS 196 W.D. Addison and Associates, "Nahanni National Park Historical Resources Inventory." 2 vols. 649p. 75 MRS 203 Richard J. Friesen, "The Chilkoot: A Literature Review." 101p. MRS 204 Gregory Thomas, "Lower Fort Garry Warehouse Building: Structural and Use History." 131p. MRS 205 David Spector, "Field Agriculture in the Canadian Prairie West, 1870-1940, with Emphasis on the Period 1870-1920." 174p. MRS 219 Ian Clarke, "Motherwell Historic Park Landscape and Outbuildings - Structural and Use History." 274p. MRS 236 Richard J. Friesen, "The Chilkoot Pass and the Great Gold Rush in 1898." 224p. MRS 237 D.M. Loveridge and Barry Potyondi, "From Wood Mountain to the Whitemud: An Historical Survey of the Grasslands National Park Area." 565p. MRS 239 James Shortt, "A Survey of the Human History of Prince Albert National Park, 1887-1945." 173p. MRS 241 H. Guest, "Dawson, San Francisco of the North, or Boomtown in a Bog: A Literature Review." 16Op. MRS 243 Orysia J. Luchak, "Prince of Wales Fort in the Eighteenth Century: An Analysis of Trade, Construction, and Sloop Voyages Northward." 297p, MRS 2 46 Gregory Thomas, "The Men's House, Lower Fort Garry: Its Furnishings, and Place Within the Hudson's Bay Company Post Environment." 151p. MRS 24 8 Diane Payment, "Structural and Settlement History of Batoche Village." 242p. MRS 251 Rodger C. Guinn, "St. Andrews Parsonage, Red River: A Structural and Land Use History." 149p. MRS 252 Walter Hildebrandt, "Fort Battleford: A Structural History." 2 vols. 595p. MRS 264 James Shortt, "Grey Owl Cabin Site." 227p. MRS 267 David Spector, "Animal Husbandry in the Canadian Prairie West" and "W.R. Motherwell's Farming Operations"; Lyle Dick, "W.R. Motherwell's Stone House: A Structural History." 337p. MRS 275 Gary Adams, "The Motherwell Farmstead, Artifact Distribution Analysis." 227p. 76 G. Adams, S. Glover, and M. Warrack, "Motherwell Homestead Archaeological Feature Report." 140p. Charles W. Amsden, "A Preliminary Archaeological Assessment of Nahanni National Park and Vicinity." 146p. J.S. Murray and J.V. Sciscenti, "Archaeological Investigations at a Late Nineteenth Century N.W.M.P. Post, Fort Walsh, Saskatchewan: Preliminary Report on the 1975 Excavations." 289p.; Jeffrey S. Murray, "Archaeological Investigations at a Late Nineteenth Century N.W.M.P. Post, Fort Walsh, Saskatchewan: Preliminary Reports on the 1976 Excavations." 194p. Manuscripts on hand or already submitted for printing in this series include the following: C. Amsden, A Preliminary Archaeological Assessment of Nahanni National Park and Vicinity, Stage 2, 1978. P. Donahue et al., The 1976-77 Batoche Archaeological Project. M. Forsman, Archaeological Investigation at Riel House, Manitoba, 1976. E. Gryba, Final Report - 19 7 3 Archaeological Survey of Prince Albert National Park. S.M. Jamieson, A Synthesis of Archaeological Research in Riding Mountain National Park to 1973. K. Lunn, A Study of Glass Bottles from a Late Nineteenth Century North-West Mounted Police Post in Southwestern Saskatchewan: Fort Walsh National Historic Park. D. Meyer, The Churchill Archaeological Investigations, August 1978. J.F.V. Millar, The Gray Site: An Early Plains Burial Ground. S. Minni, Klondike Historic Sites: 1976 and 1977. G. Moat, Metal Artifacts and the 1879 Barracks at Fort Walsh, Saskatchewan.P. Priess, Archaeological Investigations at Lower Fort Garry, 1977. MRS 276 MRS 277 MRS 281 77 P. Priess and L. Sears, Archaeological Investigations at Lower Fort Garry, 1978. M. Stevenson, Inventory and Assessment of the Historic Resources of Kluane National Park. L. Syms, Aboriginal Mounds in Southern Manitoba: an Evaluative Overview. II. Research Bulletins (available to interested researchers, on request, from Publications Section, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, 1600 Liverpool Court, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1G2. Beginning with no. 95, Research Bulletins are available in both French and English.) 28 J.V. Sciscenti and J.S. Murray, "Archaeological Investigations at Fort Walsh, Saskatchewan, 1973-75." 1976. 37 J.S. Murray, "Progress Report on the Archaeological Investigations at Fort Walsh, Saskatchewan, 1976." 1976. 45 Gregory Thomas, "Fire in the Beaver Hills." 1977. 46 David Spector, "A Bibliographical Study of Field Agriculture in the Canadian Prairie West, 1870-1940." 1977. 50 Richard Friesen, "The Chilkoot Pass: A Preliminary Bibliography." 19 77. 52 S. Minni, "Survey and Test Excavation of the Klondike Historic Sites, Yukon Territory, 1976." 1977. 53 P. Donahue and V. Hall, "A Report on Initial (1976) Archaeological Fieldwork at Batoche, Saskatchewan." 1977. 54 M. Forsman, "Archaeological Research at Riel House, Manitoba, 1976." 1977. 70 Orysia J. Luchak, "York Factory and the Prince of Wales Fort: A Brief History for Visitor Reception Centre Display." 1977. 72 C. Amsden, "A Report on Archaeological Reconnaissance in Nahanni National Park and Vicinity, N.W.T." 1977. 78 73 L. Syms, "An Assessment of Mounds in Southern Manitoba." 1977. 74 P. Donahue and V. Hall, "Archaeology at Batoche (1977)." 1978. 75 S. Minni, "Klondike Historic Sites, Yukon Territory, 1977." 1978. 76 G. Adams, "Motherwell Homestead Archaeology Project." 1978. 77, 78 David Spector, "An Annotated Bibliography for the Study of Animal Husbandry in the Canadian Prairie West, 1880-1925," (Parts A & B ) . 1978. 81 C. Parmenter, "Report on the Second Season of Archaeological Investigations of Historical Sites in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago." 1978. 82 J.F.V. Millar, "The Gray Burial Site." 1978. 84 Richard Stuart, "Quantifying the Unquantifiable: Establishing Criteria for a Building of Interest List for use in the Klondike National Historic Site." 1978. 85 Ian Clarke, "Yukon River Corridor: Historic Themes and Sites." 1978. 92 Richard Stuart, "Madame Tremblay1s Store." 1978. 96 R. Vickers, "A Report on the 1977 Fieldwork of the Chilkoot Archaeology Project." 1978. 9 7 Diane Payment, "Monsieur Batoche." 1978. 114 G. Adams, "End of Season Report; York Factory National Historic Sites." 1979. The following reports have been submitted for publication in this series. C. Amsden, Archaeological Research in Nahanni National Park, 1978. D. Burley, Archaeological Research of the Klondike National Historic Site: The 1978 Season. P. Donahue, Archaeology at Batoche (1978). 79 D. Meyer and U. Linnemae, Churchill Archaeological Research, August 1978. G. Moat, Carron Stoves at York Factory. J. Murray, Preliminary Report on the 1978 Archaeology Project at Fort Walsh National Historic Park. C. Parmenter, Historical Archaeology in the Eastern High Arctic. P. Priess, Archaeological Investigations at Upper Fort Garry, 1978. M. Stevenson, Archaeological Research in Kluane National Park, 1978. Research Bulletins are also anticipated for current archaeological research projects at York Factory, Dawson City, Fort Walsh, and Kluane National Park. Peter Priess and Richard Stuart REQUEST FOR INFORMATION Interpretations behind Lea and Perrins Worcestershire Sauce bottle base markings as dating keys for archaeological sites are being re-evaluated in light of historical and archaeological data made available over the past decade. To date a history of Lea and Perrins in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States has been collated and information on thirty-two bottles from twelve sites in the United States and Canada collected (the data being from published sources and Parks Canada collections). Tests of earlier interpretations and a revised hypothesis are to be written up as a preliminary report although data from more sites and collections are required for a full-scale study and to consider variables (e.g. spatial frame) 81 CULTURE MATERIELLE ET BIBLIOGRAPHIE ANNUELLE DE LA "MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION" Depuis sa création en 1970, la section consacrée à la culture traditionnelle dans la bibliographie internationale publiée par la "Modem Language Association" a signalé, entre autres, un grand nombre d'ouvrages et d'articles sur la culture matérielle dans toutes les parties du monde. Toutes les bibliothèques universitaires sont abonnées à cette bibliographie A l'intérieur des grandes rubriques comprises dans la dernière édition — architecture, arts populaires, artisanat et technologie, costume et cuisine — on trouve des études faites par des folkloristes, des anthropologues, des historiens de l'art, des spécialistes de la géographie culturelle, des archéologues, des conservateurs de musée et des collectionneurs amateurs. Depuis août 1978, cette section a pris plus d'importance dans la bibliographie, et les éditions ultérieures présenteront une des listes les plus exhaustives sur les recherches effectuées dans le domaine de la culture matérielle en Amérique du Nord. Comme c'est à moi que l'on a confié l'établissement de cette liste, j'y ai inclus un grand nombre d'études portant sur la culture matérielle au Canada et je me ferai un plaisir de répondre à toutes vos questions. S'il vous plaît s'adresser à Gerald L. Pocius, Chargé de cours, Department of Folklore, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St-Jean (Terre-Neuve), AlC 5S7. 82 COMMUNICATIONS DU "COLLOQUE SUR L'HISTOIRE DE LA CULTURE MATERIELLE DU CANADA" En mars 1979, le Musée national de l'Homme a parrainé la première conférence nationale sur l'histoire de la culture matérielle au Canada. Quinze participants représentant un échantillon de disciplines, d'établissements et de pays ont présenté des communications sur les sujets suivants: - Histoire de la culture matérielle et histoire: situation actuelle et perspectives d'avenir - Approches et réalisations en histoire de la culture matérielle: trois études de cas - Les sources en histoire de la culture matérielle: exposé critique - L'histoire de la culture matérielle à l'étranger: progrès récents et orientations futures en France, en Grande-Bretagne et aux Etats-Unis - Besoins actuels, perspectives d'avenir et application de la recherche en histoire de la culture matérielle Ces communications sont maintenant regroupées dans le Bulletin d'histoire de la culture matérielle n° 8. Pour commander ce numéro spécial, il suffit d'envoyer un chèque ou mandat de $5 à l'ordre du Receveur général du Canada à l'adresse suivante: Service des commandes Division de l'édition Musées nationaux du Canada Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0M8 83 PAPERS FROM "CANADA'S MATERIAL HISTORY: A FORUM" In March 1979 the National Museum of Man sponsored the first national conference on Canadian material history. Fifteen participants invited from a cross-section of disciplines, institutions, and countries presented papers on the following topics: - Material History and History: Present Relationship and Future Prospects - Approaches to and Achievements in Material History: Three Case Studies - Sources for Material History: A Critique - Material History Abroad: Recent Developments and Future Trends - Present Needs and Future Prospects in Material History: Training and Application of Research These papers are now available for $5.00 as Material History Bulletin no. 8, a special issue which can be ordered by forwarding a cheque or money order payable to the Receiver General of Canada to: Order Fulfilment, Publishing Division, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. K1A 0M8