Reviews / Comptes rendus - Glass in Canada: - An Annotated Bibliography

Reviews / Comptes rendus

Glass in Canada:

An Annotated Bibliography

Janet Holmes
Royal Ontario Museum
Olive Jones
Parks Canada

1 In the early 1950s Edith Chown Pierce, Lorne Pierce, Gerald Stevens, George MacLaren, and Robert Lionel Séguin became interested in documenting Canadian glass and within a few years began to publish the results of their research. Since these early publications the literature on Canadian glass has expanded considerably. This bibliography is intended to provide a list of the available sources and guidance as to their usefulness. At the same time it seems appropriate to assess the directions taken by researchers and collectors and to look at the types of publications available.

2 Throughout its history Canada has depended on imported glassware. It was not until ca. 1840 that Canadian glass production began and since that time Canadians have used both domestic and foreign glass. This bibliography, therefore, lists material dealing not only with glass manufactured in Canada but also with glass used and found here. The list concentrates primarily on tablewares, bottles, jars, and lamps and touches on insulators, stained glass, studio glass, and beads. Although we have attempted to compile as complete a list as possible, undoubtedly some material has been missed. Because of considerations of time and space certain types of publications were omitted. With a few exceptions pre-1960 publications are not listed. There is no attempt to include newspaper articles, antique columns in magazines and newspapers, Canadian archaeological site reports, book reviews, or foreign antiques magazines. Literature on types of glass which might be found in Canada but which have no specific Canadian connections has not been included. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author, or by title if no author is given, and then by date of publication in order to show a writer's research progression.

Trends in Canadian Glass Research

3 The initial aim of the Pierces, Stevens, MacLaren, and Séguin was to prove that Canada had a glass industry before the beginning of the twentieth century. Stevens particularly appears to have been motivated by a nationalist sentiment in what he saw as a climate of indifference and disbelief. These early researchers tended to treat the nineteenth-century industry as an isolated Canadian development; they were not interested in examining either its design and form relationships within the context of the period or its connection with American or British industries. This isolationism has influenced both the literature which followed the initial works and the collecting patterns of a whole generation.

4 The main focus of Canadian glass research has been to establish which pressed patterns, lamps, and fruit jars were made in Canada and in which factories. The identification of "Canadian" pieces has had a direct influence on the desirability of a piece of glass and, consequently, on its price. The "Canadian" factor has predominated over considerations of quality of glass and design. This chase for "Canadian identity" has often led to the suspension of critical judgment when attributing specific items to Canadian factories. In the absence of marked pieces other methods of making attributions have had to be found. Because of the importance placed in the literature on identifying glassware of Canadian manufacture, it seems a good idea to examine briefly some of these other methods — methods, incidentally, which are by no means unique to Canadian glass studies.

5 Documentary research, using directories, newspapers, and occasionally property records, has been the main source for outlining glass factory histories but has provided no evidence of the specific products made. Twentieth-century company catalogues identify products but have been used only selectively. For the earlier period researchers have depended on "digs" at glass factory sites, on interviews with local residents, glass-blowers, or descendants of glassblowers, on the occurrence of certain types of glass pieces in a region close to a glass factory, and, more recently, on design similarities between unknown pieces and "authenticated" pieces. When used carefully these methods can add to our knowledge of products from specific factories, but when used without discrimination or by people whose only interest is making specific attributions to specific factories, the conclusions are likely to be questionable.

6 Excavations on a glass factory site have been regarded as the only sure way to identify pieces made by that factory. Unfortunately many of these have been "digs," rather than excavations, and have been conducted by people with no idea of the complex problems involved in interpreting what is found in the ground. Digging holes on a glass factory site and finding glass does not constitute proof that the glass found was made at the factory. In addition to the well-known problem of cullet, there may easily have been subsequent activity at the site which disturbed the original factory material or which resulted in glass having no connection with the factory being deposited at the site. The glass found has to be studied in relation to its location on the site, other artifact material found with it, and the glassmaking history and technology of the period.

7 When interviewing local residents, glassblowers, and descendants of glassblowers, the interviewer has to ask the right question in the right way and be able to assess the validity of the answer. Oral history is not simply a matter of talking to people and believing everything they say.

8 "Attribution by location" is based on the theory that if certain kinds of glass are found only within a certain area, then those items must have been manufactured by the local glass factory. This localized occurrence may be simply an expression of local preferences, or represent a single shipment from a distant source that was not necessarily Canadian. The person making the observation may have only limited exposure to the glass field as a whole. While it is likely that a factory would have sold its products locally, location alone does not provide a sound basis for attribution.

9 Design similarities can provide good evidence for making attributions. However, one has to be sure that the original piece is correctly attributed and that no other factories were making the same product. One also has to be careful that comparison is made with the original piece each time a new variant is considered.

10 In spite of the above reservations an inestimable debt is owed to the work of the early pioneers, especially Stevens and MacLaren. Neither of them is responsible for the excesses of subsequent publications and their work continues to be the best place to learn about the history of Canadian glass. In addition, we would recommend Collard (1970), Thompson (1972), Coburn (1974), Sheeler (April 1968), Holmes (1974), Provick (1967), the Bradbeers (1976), Ryder (1962), Kingdon et al. (1971), Mercer (1971) for revisions and additions to Stevens (1961, 1967), and MacLaren (1971). Publications by the Unitts and the Spences have been compiled in direct response to the collecting interest. On the whole illustrated guides and general articles tend to summarize earlier publications and there is a tendency to repeat tentative attributions without including the reservations originally expressed.

11 An encouraging trend that began to appear in the late 1960s and early 1970s is the interest in studying glass used in Canada, independent of its manufacturing origin. The Russell (1968) and Thuro (1976) books, the archaeological reports, and the stained glass articles are examples of this type of work. At their best these works are an attempt to understand the objects in their social milieu and even the mediocre ones are good descriptive catalogues of glassware used in the past in a Canadian setting. These studies have tended to concentrate on bottles, insulators, lamps, stained glass, general tableglass, and occasionally modern glass.

12 Bottles. Interest in bottle collecting in Canada has developed within the last ten years. The majority of the literature on bottles is of American origin. As many of the bottles used in Canada in the second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century were of American origin, much of this literature is useful. For the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century, however, the archaeological material listed in this bibliography is the best source of information for types of bottles used in Canada and also for information on glass technology. Otherwise, with the exception of Urquhart's book, all the manufacturing discussions in the Canadian bottle literature should be avoided. No fully accurate source exists for the accurate dating of bottles using manufacturing techniques.

13 The collectors' books published in Canada have been of two types, price lists or guides for collectors. As many of the late nineteenth- and twentieth-century bottles have embossed markings, it has been easier to research bottles than tableware. This research has tended to concentrate on local bottles, usually for soda water, beer, and medicines, and has been based initially on directories and newspapers. The emphasis has been on determining local use of the bottles rather than discovering glass factory origin. The same trends are evident in recent publications in the United States. The bottle field is so large that concentration on small, limited groups of bottles, either in locale or in subject matter, is logical. As a whole, though, the bottle books are long on pictures and prices and short on information about the bottles.

14 Insulators. Since' the late 1960s Canadian insulators have been considered very collectable and for this reason are found mentioned in most American sources. As a side interest Canadian collectors have also become interested in telecommunications.

15 Lamps. For some reason this category is the best researched and two very fine books, one by Thuro and one by Russell, set a high standard for everyone else to follow.

16 Stained glass. As most of the surviving stained glass windows are located in public buildings and private houses, it is a matter of collecting information on the windows rather than collecting the windows themselves. Some good research is being done in this field.

17 Tableglass: general. For tableglass used in Canada since the early eighteenth century, the best sources are the archaeological reports mentioned in the bibliography. Eaton's catalogues and other similar sources give an idea of what was available in Canada in a given period from the late nineteenth century onwards. Canadian cut glass is largely unexplored.

18 Modern glass. There are a number of artist-craftsmen making studio glass in Canada. Articles appear periodically on these people and their work. Canadian commercial factories are still making "Canadian" glass. Now is a good time to collect documentation and documented pieces for both types of production.

Publishers and Publications

19 Collectors' club newsletters. These are generally internal publications for club members and as such are not available to the general public. They contain information in the form of notes, queries, and reprints of items such as newspaper advertisements or catalogue pages, but rarely include articles. Research tends to concentrate on local interest or specific subjects although there are sometimes poor summaries of broader topics. One of their continuing problems in publishing is that the majority of club members are uninterested in research. The best newsletters with the broadest scope are the Glasfax Newsletter and the Parkland Bottle Collector.

20 "Canadian Antiques Collector." This is Canada's longest-lived magazine devoted to the field of collecting. The glass articles of Canadian interest vary considerably in quality from well-researched ones to those of little or no value.

21 Government publications. These tend to concentrate on glass from archaeological excavations and consequently discuss glass used in Canada. Items included in this bibliography deal specifically with glass but there is also a growing body of literature on historical archaeological excavations which describe all types of artifacts recovered. Check both federal and provincial government listings, particularly for Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. New material from these sources is added irregularly so it is wise to examine new listings periodically. Occasionally some universities and museums will publish similar types of material. One major drawback with these sources is the time lag between excavation and publication.

22 Privately published material. A surprising number of books are published by the authors, particularly in the field of bottles, fruit jars, and insulators. While this demonstrates dedication and initiative, it also means that the discipline forced on an author by a publisher is lacking. The results are definitely uneven. The advantages for the author are freedom of presentation and the speed with which the book can be published. Distribution, however, is a major problem with these publications although the Unitts appear to have been successful in overcoming it. Others rely on word of mouth, bottle shows, flea markets, and local book stores to get their books known.

23 Price lists. Again these are usually privately published. Pricing is a separate field of research and nothing goes out of date faster than a price list.

24 General collecting books. These often include a chapter on Canadian glass, but they are a poor place to learn about the subject except in a general way.

Directions for the Future

25 The study of Canadian glass and glass in Canada is still relatively young. Many sources of information have not been fully utilized and others have not been touched, while many aspects of the subject have never even been considered. There is a need for good, thorough, local studies but also for an examination of Canadian glass within the major international trends of the nineteenth century. There is a need, too, to study glass used in Canada within its social context. The field is large and the opportunities for exciting research are enormous.

Abrahamson, Una. Crafts Canada, The Useful Arts. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin & Company, 1974. Briefly surveys the history of glass; illustrates studio glass and stained glass (pp.28-44).
Abrahamson, Una, and Campaigne, Alan. "Canadiana Under 30 Dollars. Here a fabulous 11 page portfolio of pictures and expertise on how to get on the collecting bandwagon in Canadiana, Victoriana and other treasures, this summer." Chatelaine, July 1968, pp.30-45. Includes a brief summary of Canadian glass and other glass used in Canada.
Ahlborn, Richard E. "Canadiana at the Smithsonian." Canadian Antiques Collector, May 1968, pp.7-10. Illustrates two stained glass windows by H. Horwood, Prescott, Ont., 1885.
Alyluia, Jeanne. "19th-century Glassware from the Roma Site, P.E.I." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Parks Canada, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Manuscript Report Series no. 120 (Ottawa, 1973). Internal unedited report; copies are deposited at Public Archives of Canada and in all provincial archives. Discusses bottles from archaeological excavations. Nineteenth-century occupation of the site centres around MacDonald store. Forthcoming in Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in History and Archaeology, and translated in Lieux historiques canadiens: Cahiers d'archéologie et d'histoire (Ottawa).
"Armorial Goblet." The Beaver, Outfit 295 (Winter 1964), inside back cover. Illustrates an eighteenth-century goblet with motto of the Hudson's Bay Company engraved on the bowl. From the Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, N.Y.
Austin, Alvyn J. "Toronto Stained Glass Windows." Canadian Antiques Collector, July/August 1975, pp.18-22. The author deals with Toronto domestic stained glass windows from the 1880s and 1890s, describing the "Toronto Style" house and its use of such windows. He interprets the use of stained glass as a reflection of the way in which Victorian and Edwardian Torontonians viewed themselves and their world in the creation of a nostalgic and romantic link with the Empire and a more distant past.
Barclay, John C. Canadian Fruit Jar Report. Published by the author, R.R. 3, Kent Bridge, Ont., 1977. Badly in need of a good editor. The author openly states his reasons for considering the jars to be of Canadian manufacture and the careful reader can draw his own conclusions. Jars are described quite well; embossings on jars are drawn.
Bennett, Myron, and Hogan, Bill. "The Taylor and Bate Brewery, St. Catharines 1834-1935." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 2 (April 1976), pp.29-31. A brief company history plus illustrations of two company bottles.
Bird, Marion, and Bird, Doug. North American Fruit Jar Index and Supplement to North American Fruit Jar Index. Published by the authors, Orillia, Ont., 1968, 1969. Sold as part of a three-ring binder, Index (1968) and Supplement (1969) are continuously paged. Primarily a check-list of American and Canadian fruit jars and a price guide for collectors. Also includes a brief discussion of "History and Data" on Canadian jars and some drawings of embossed markings on fruit jars and lids.
Bird, Marion; Bird, Douglas; and Corke, Charles. A Century of Antique Canadian Glass Fruit Jars. Published by the authors, London, Ont., 1971. A basic publication on Canadian fruit jars now, unfortunately, out of print. The authors have included a group of jars which do not have support for a Canadian attribution but this is indicated in the text. In some cases they do not provide support for attributing jars to certain Canadian factories. The photographs are very good, always an asset in a glass book.
Birk, Eileen. "Notes on Canadian Activities in the Arts." Antiques, July 1967, pp.32, 34, 36, 40. Mentions collections of Canadian glass in Canadian museums.
Bland, Mavis. "A Man Had a Dream." Ontario Potter 2, no. 2 (Fall-Winter, 1976), pp.24-26. Article on Roman Bartkiw, glassblower, Combermere, Ont.
Bottle Auction Catalog, Saturday June 30 and Sunday July 1, 1973, 10 a.m. Ashton, Ont.: Ashton Feed Mill Flea Market and Auction Hall, 1973. Auction catalogue for Don MacKenzie's bottle collection, one of the first collections in Canada.
Bradbeer, Alan, and Bradbeer, Dorothy. "The Crystal Glass Company: British Columbia's First Glass Factory." Canadian Antiques Collector, May/June 1976, pp.104-06. A carefully documented account of the history of the company from contemporary newspaper accounts.
Brown, Margaret K. Glass from Fort Michilimackinac: A Classification for 18th Century Glass, Michigan Archaeologist 17, (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1971). Entry included in this bibliography because the glass is very similar to that recovered on eighteenth-century sites in Canada with French and British military and fur trade contexts. It is a thorough description of glass recovered from archaeological excavations at the site which is located at the entrance to Lake Michigan. The text is confusingly organized and the classification system is not recommended.
Canada, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Mineral Resources Division, Ceramic Plants in Canada (Ottawa, 1966). List mentions locations of glass plants (pp.14-19), names of managers, raw materials used and their source, types of furnaces, fuel, products, and capacity.
Canada, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Mineral Resources Branch, Ceramic Plants in Canada, January 1972 (Ottawa). Current glass plants are listed on pp.22-27.
"Canadian Glass." The Auctioneer 12, no. 5 (September 1970), pp.1, 4-6. A feature article to coincide with sale of the Frances Woodrow collection by Ward Price auctioneers. Includes a brief survey of glassmaking in general; also discusses Canadian glass production.
Canadiana Cruets. Scarborough, Ont.: Bick's, n.d. Illustrated booklet of Bick's Canadiana cruet collection. The pamphlet indicates that information on the cruets is available from the company.
Carter, Morris A., and Hostetler, Jim. Ontario Soda Water Bottles Including Price Guide. Woodstock, Ont.: Rune Publication, 1975. Lists over 700 bottles, over 300 companies, and has 160 rubbings of embossing on bottles. For collectors this book lists more common bottles than does Herr's, but it does not distinguish between machine-made and hand-made bottles.
Christie, Brown and Company. Biscuit Jars Past and Present from the Collection of Christie, Brown and Company, Limited. N.p., [1970]. Illustrated catalogue of the collection, including glass, tin, and ceramic biscuit jars of international origins, primarily American and English.
Cloutier, Jean-Pierre. Fort William Food-Related Artifacts. Fort William Archaeological Project, Ontario Ministry of Culture and Recreation, Toronto, 1976. The report discusses artifacts related to food which were recovered in excavations at Fort William, Ont.
Coburn, W. Newlands. "The First Quebec Glass Factory: La première verrerie du Québec." Canadian Antiques Collector, May/June 1974, pp.93-97. The article traces the history of two Saint-Jean, Que., glass houses: the Canada Glassworks, 1845-ca. 1853, which produced window glass, and the Canada Glass Works (Foster Brothers), ca. 1854-ca. 1860. It mentions that between ca. 1860 and 1875 there is no evidence of glass being produced in Saint-Jean . The article appears in both French and English.
Collard, Elizabeth. "Reason for the Beaver Goblet." Canadian Antiques Collector, April 1967, pp.25-26. Describes the history of the special rally and celebration in Quebec City for the fête of St-Jean-Baptiste, 24 June 1880, an occasion recalled by the "Beaver and Maple Leaf" goblet which is lettered "St. Jean Baptiste. Quebec. 24 juin, 1880."
Collard, Elizabeth. "The St. Lawrence Glass Co.; Glasshouse to Pottery." Canadian Antiques Collector, September 1970, pp.12-13. The article outlines the history of the St. Lawrence Glass Co., Montreal, 1867-73, based on contemporary newspaper accounts and advertisements.
Colwill, Virginia L. "Glass Bottles as Chronological Markers in Archaeological Sites." Manitoba Archaeological Newsletter 11 (1974): 3-9. Anyone using this article as a guide to using glass bottles as chronological markers is in serious trouble.
Cranfill, Gary C , and Kareofelas, Greg A. The Glass Insulator: A Comprehensive Reference. Published by the authors, Sacramento, Calif., 1973. Lists primarily American insulators but also includes some Canadian examples.
Cunningham, Robert, and Prince, John B. Tamped Clay and Saltmarsh Hay: Artifacts of New Brunswick. Fredericton, N.B.: Brunswick Press, 1976. General discussion of glass, a glass glossary, plus mention of the Canadian glass industry (pp.174-94).
Décarie-Audet, Louise. "La Maison Dupont-Renaud à Québec: Un dépôt de bouteilles du 19e siècle." Québec, Ministère des Affaires culturelles, Direction générale du patrimoine, dossier 27 (1977). Extensive description and discussion of bottles recovered from an archaeological excavation in Quebec City. The bottles date to the second half of the nineteenth century. Contains a glossary of manufacturing terms and a good discussion of manufacturing techniques.
Dellandrea, Jon S. "Bottles in Canada." Canadian Antiques Collector, September/October 1977, pp.26-29. A poorly done article, particularly misleading for the eighteenth century.
Dellandrea Jon S. "Packaging the Panacea; Medicine Bottles in Upper Canada." Canadian Antiques Collector, May/June 1978, pp.54-57. A general article, disappointing in its content.
Dominion Glass Company. Glass Making. Montreal: Dominion Glass Company, n.d. Well-illustrated, promotional pamphlet on the glass industry and the company.
Dominion Glass Company. St. Clair, Division of/de Dominion Glass Company Ltd. Montreal: Dominion Glass Company, [ca. 1974]. Catalogue of tablewares being manufactured by Dominion Glass at that time. Profusely illustrated. This catalogue is included to remind us that Canadian glass continues to be made and that today's catalogues are tomorrow's source material.
Dominion Glass Company. Sealed in Glass. Montreal: Dominion Glass Company, [ca. 1976]. Well-illustrated, promotional pamphlet on the glass industry and the company.
Dunning, Philip W. [William Philip Wilson]. The Canadiana Guidebook, Antique Collecting in Ontario. Toronto: Greey de Pencier Publications, 1974. Glass (pp.90-97). A sensible guide, with a bibliography after each section.
T. Eaton Company. The 1901 Editions of the T. Eaton Co. Limited Catalogues for Spring and Summer, Fall and Winter. Toronto: Musson Book Company, 1970. Includes small sections on tableglass, lamps, and products packaged in glass. Reprints such as these make primary source material available to the general public. It is always wise with catalogue reprints to check for editorial alterations to the original, such as missing pages. A full set of T. Eaton Company catalogues, 1884-1941, is available on microfilm.
T. Eaton Company. The 1927 Edition of the T. Eaton Co. Limited Catalogue for Spring and Summer. Toronto: Musson Book Company, 1971. Comments as above.
Fortier, John. "Research and Discovery at Louisbourg." Antiques, June 1970, pp.880-87. Discussion of artifacts recovered from excavations at the Fortress of Louisbourg, N.S. Illustrations of French and English glass tablewares are included.
Foster, John Morrill. Old Bottle Foster and His Glass-Making Descendants. Fort Wayne, Ind.: Keefer Printing Company, 1972. Includes a chapter on Canada Glass Works (Foster Brothers), Saint-Jean, Que.
Genêt, Nicole. "Analyse des artefacts provenant d'un ensemble clos à Place Royale" in "Les Maisons Gueroult et Vanfelson à Québec: étude du matériel archéologique." Québec, Ministère des Affaires culturelles, Direction générale du patrimoine, dossier 26 (1977). Glass and ceramic table-wares and containers excavated from a closed context dating to 1836 at Place Royale, Quebec, Que.
Genêt, Nicole; Décarie-Audet, Louise; et Vermette, Luce. Les Objets familiers de nos ancêtres. Montréal: Editions de l'homme, 1974. A glossary of terminology used in Montreal inventories, 1740-60. Photographs of bottles and tableglass from archaeological excavations are used to illustrate the various glass terms used.
Gilhen, John. "Telephone and Telegraph Insulators: The End of an Era." The Occasional 3, no. 3 (Summer 1976), pp.26-35. Published by Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, N.S. Discusses the decreasing use of glass insulators and some of the early history of Canadian lines.
Glasfax Newsletter 1, no. 1 (1967). Glasfax is a national organization devoted to the study of Canadian glass. Sponsored for the first eleven years by Domglas (formerly Dominion Glass Company), it is now funded solely through membership fees. The Newsletter is published up to nine times a year. It is circulated only to members and is not available to the general public. The articles, reprints, notes, queries, comments, pictures about the glass industry in general and the Canadian glass industry in particular are a blend of fact, humour, and personal approaches which make very lively reading. The Newsletter has been edited by Madeleine Thomson of Ottawa since 1971 and reflects her dedication to a national group of collectors with diverse interests. This organization is recommended to those who are seriously interested in studying Canadian glass. Contact: John Sheeler, Co-ordinator, Glasfax, 137 Water Street North, St. Mary's, Ont., N0M 2V0.
Glass Container Council of Canada. Facts About the Reclamation and Recycling of Glass Containers. Toronto: Glass Container Council of Canada, n.d. Pamphlet on glass as garbage.
Hamilton, Alice. Manitoban Stained Glass. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg, 1970. Photographs by David Fox and Barbara Rogers. Deals with the use of glass and stained glass in Manitoba churches, 1818-1970, the differing congregational views of the purpose of the windows, the symbolism used, the craft of glass staining, and the history of stained glass workers in Manitoba, 1899-1970. A guide to Manitoba stained glass; describes 117 stained glass windows. Indexed. An excellent, well-researched book based on visits to some 600 churches and synagogues, research in church and stained glass company records, and interviews with church leaders and stained glass artists.
Harrington, Lyn. "Medicine Hat - The Town that was Born Lucky." Canadian Geographical Journal 80 (April 1970), pp.126-33. Illustrates wares produced by hand-blown methods in a factory in Medicine Hat, Alta.
Harris, Jane E. "Glassware Excavated at Fort Gaspereau, New Brunswick." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History no. 10 (Ottawa, 1975), pp.74-95. Discussions of excavated material from a mid eighteenth-century French military site with late nineteenth- and twentieth-century occupations.
Harris, Jane E. "Glassware Excavated at Beaubassin, Nova Scotia." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History no. 13 (Ottawa, 1975), pp.127-42. Describes glassware from excavations at a site near Amherst, N.S., with Acadian and British (up to early nineteenth century) occupations.
Harris, Jane E. "Eighteenth-Century French Blue-Green Bottles from the Fortress of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia." Forthcoming in Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History, and translated in Lieux historiques canadiens: Cahiers d'archéologie et d'histoire (Ottawa). This should be available in late 1979 and will appear with McNally, Paul, "French Table Glass from the Fortress of Louisbourg," (see below). A descriptive analysis of the different styles of distinctive blue-green glass containers from the important archaeological collections of the Fortress of Louisbourg.
Harris, W.F. Nova Scotia's Pops and Crocks: The Soda Water Industry 1836-1947. Privately printed, 1977. Brief company histories of bottlers using stoneware and glass containers. Histories are based on directory information. Illustrates primarily stoneware bottles. One of the more informative bottle books available.
Harrison, Don. Olde Tyme Bottles. Published by author, 1781 Island Avenue, Vancouver, B.C., [1973?]. Reviewed in Westward Collector Quarterly 1, no. 1 (1973), p.19. Not seen; apparently contains photographs and prices and includes many types of bottles.
Hayes, Jack. "Canadian Glass Making." Insulators 7, no. 3 (May 1975), p.4. Published in Chico, Calif. Not seen.
Hayes, Jack. "Baby Canadian Threadless." Insulators 8, no. 2 (April 1976), p.12. Published in Chico, Calif. Not seen.
Hayes, Jack. "Early Western Canadian Telegraph Lines and Insulators." Insulators 9, no. 9 (November 1977), p.3. Published in Chico, Calif. Not seen.
Hearn, John. Nostalgia, A Guide to Collecting in Canada. Toronto: Greey de Pencier Publications, 1975. Contains sections on Canadian fruit jars, Coca-Cola, insulators, and lamps and a general introduction to these categories. Emphasis of the book is on collecting.
Herr, James A. Breweries & Soda Works of St. Thomas 1833-1933. An Illustrated History for Bottle Collectors, Volume I for Ontario Series. Published by the author, St. Thomas, Ont., 1974. Brief company histories and drawings of bottles.
Herr, James A. The Ontario Soda Water Bottle Collector's Index and Price Guide, Volume II for Ontario Series. St. Thomas, Ont.: Canada West Publishing, [ca. 1975]. Lists over 330 bottles and has drawings of 210. Includes very brief descriptions of bottles and a price guide.
Himel, Susan, and Lambert, Elaine. Handmade in Ontario: A Guide to Crafts and Craftsmen. Toronto: Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1976. Includes names of studio glassblowers in Ontario and describes their work.
Hogan, Bill. "A Price List for Ontario Bottles." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 1 (January 1976), pp.11-13.
Hogan, Pauline. "The Erie Glass Company of Canada Ltd." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 1 (January 1976), pp.3-7. Adapted with permission from research work by Hazel Sauer of Welland, Ont., for Glasfax Newsletter, 1973. The Erie Glass Company was a bottle factory in Port Colborne, Ont., 1892-93. Bottles marked "Erie" on base are believed to have been made by this company. No documentation exists for this attribution.
Holmes, Janet. "Canadian Glass Patterns." Canadian Antiques Collector, January 1970, pp.10-12. Illustrates Beaded Oval and Fan, Oval and Fan no. 2, Maple Leaf, Daisy and X-Band, and Late Nugget patterns. The captions list the various forms mentioned in the Jefferson Glass Company Catalogue 21 and its Price List, the latter updated by hand to August 1932.
Holmes, Janet. "Canadian Glass Patterns." Canadian Antiques Collector, May 1970, pp.14-17. Illustrates Colonial, Athenian, "204" or Bow Tie, "210" or Beaded Petal, "220" or Canadian Thistle, "200" or Stippled Swirl, and "1501" or Woodrow patterns. The patterns and their forms are traced through glass company catalogues published between 1902 and 1932.
Holmes, Janet. "Ottawa Glass Works, Como, Quebec." Journal of Glass Studies 14: 164-5. Brief discussion of archaeological excavations at the factory site in 1971.
Holmes, Janet. "Glass and the Glass Industry." In The Book of Canadian Antiques, edited by Donald Blake Webster, pp.268-81. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1974. A good basic survey of the Canadian glass industry up to ca. 1925.
Holmes, Janet. "Collecting Canada's Past. The Sigmund Samuel Canadiana Gallery Celebrates Its 25th Year." Rotunda 9, no. 1 (Spring 1976), pp.28-33. Published by Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ont. General description of how the collection was formed; includes Canadian glass.
Holmes, Janet. "Artist-Craftsman in Glass: Elmer Hookway, 1889-1974." Canadian Antiques Collector, March/April 1976, pp.36-38. Biography of Elmer Hookway illustrated with whimsical, pyrex, and lampwork items.
"Hot Glass: The Art of Alfie Lukian." Handmade, no. 5 (April-May 1978), pp.4-10. Published in Pakenham, Ont. Article on studio glassmaker Alfie Lukian at work in Rawdon, Que. Includes illustrations of some of his pieces and a good discussion of the manufacturing techniques he uses.
"HP Sauce and Smedley's in Canada...and the Story of a Pioneer."
Imperial Tobacco Group Review 3, no. 3 (May 1972), pp.10-12. Company newspaper, London, England. Brief outline of E.D. Smith Company's history and gaining the rights to sell HP Sauce and Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce in Canada.
Hudson's Bay Company. The Autumn and Winter Catalogue 1910-1911 of the Hudson's Bay Company. Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer Publishing, 1977.
Illman, Alberta. "Canadian Glass Pitchers." Spinning Wheel 22 (September 1966), p.16. Not seen.
Illman, Alberta. "The Canadian Glass Insulator." Western Collector 7, no. 8 (August 1969), pp.384-86. Brief survey of Canadian insulators.
"Ink, Inks, Inks,...Inks." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 3 (August 1976), pp.21-25. Brief history of ink plus drawings of Ontario ink bottles.
Jamieson, Jack. "The Stained Glass Window in the Old Toronto City Hall." Canadian Antiques Collector, March 1969, pp.14-16. An excellent article on Robert McCausland, his early training, his collaboration with Edward Lennox, architect of Toronto City Hall, and a discussion of the finished window compared with the design sketch. It is based on Robert McCausland's notebooks and sketchbooks.
Jarvis, Jean. "The F.F. Dalley Co. Ltd." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 3 (August 1976), pp.16-18. Ink bottles and a brief history of the Hamilton, Ont., company.
Jones, Lottie M. "Early American and Canadian Glass, An Address to the Society on Nov. 9, 1973." Wentworth Bygones. From the Papers and Records of the Head-of-the-Lake Historical Society, Hamilton, no. 11 (1973), pp.54-58. Describes glass-making techniques, American glass, and Ontario glass. Not recommended.
Jones, Olive R. "Glassware Excavated at Yuquot, B.C." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Parks Canada, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Manuscript Report Series no. 12 (Ottawa, 1970). Internal unedited report; copies are deposited at Public Archives of Canada and in all provincial archives. Glass found during archaeological excavations at this Nootkan site dates to the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Jones, Olive R. "Glassware." Canadian Antiques Collector, March/April 1973, pp.56-57. Glass from the Roma site, Brudenell Point, P.E.I., and from Fort Amherst, near Charlottetown, P.E.I., excavated by the National Historic Sites Service, Parks Canada.
Jones,Olive R. "A Catalogue of the Glass Bottles and Other Miscellaneous Glassware Excavated at Côteau-du-Lac, Québec." Forthcoming in Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, History and Archaeology,and translated in Histoire et Archéologie. This should appear in late 1979. Discussion of bottle glass and miscellaneous glassware from excavations at a British military site dating from 1779 to ca. 1870.
Kaellgren, Peter, ed. A Gather of Glass: Glass Through the Ages in the Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1977. Catalogue of special exhibition at the Royal Ontario Museum; includes Canadian glass.
Kamm, George. "Ladies and Gents — Meet Martin L. Demaine." Glass Art Magazine 2, no. 1 (February 1974), pp.26-27. Not seen. Martin Demaine is a studio glassblower working in New Brunswick.
Karklins, Karlis. "Beads from the Fort at Côteau-du-Lac." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, History and Archaeology no. 15 (Ottawa, 1977), pp.65-87. Discusses beads from excavations at a British military site dating from 1779 to ca. 1870.
Karklins, Karlis. "The Beads from Fort Lennox, Quebec." Forthcoming in Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, History and Archaeology, and translated in Histoire et archéologie no. 20 (Ottawa, 1978). Describes a small collection of glass beads dating from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Karklins, Karlis, and Sprague, Roderick. "Glass Trade Beads in North America: An Annotated Bibliography." Historical Archaeology 6: 87-101. Bibliography concentrates on basic bead references and on archaeological site reports which can be used for establishing distribution and for dating bead types. As the literature on glass trade beads is extensive, this bibliography is recommended as a place to start. The authors are currently up-dating and expanding the bibliography and plan to publish the results in late 1978. Material on the use of trade beads by indigenous North Americans can be found in ethnographic literature.
Kennedy, D.H. "A Noted Collector Speaks Out on Canadian (?) Glass." Canadian Antiques Collector, September/October 1974, pp.35-37. While the author warns against unsupported Canadian attributions for pattern glass, he is, nevertheless, an advocate of speculative collecting of glass based on style similarities.
Kennedy, Donald. "Manitoba Glass Works." Canadian Antiques Collector, November/December 1971, pp.64-67. The article repeats the information in Mac Provick, "Beausejour's Glass Works," Canadian Antiques Collector, January 1967, pp.7-10 (see below). It includes additional information from an interview with M.F. Hoban on making mould-blown bottles.
King, Tom B. "History of the Canadian Glass Industry." Journal of the Canadian Ceramic Society 34 (1964), pp.86-91. A survey of the history of the Canadian glass industry intermingled with discussions of glassmaking technology.
King, Tom B. "A General History of the Canadian Glass Industry." Telescope, June and September 1977. Corporate newsletter of Domglas Ltd. Basically a summary of Gerald Stevens's work.
Kingdon, Jack; Parker, Dave; Taylor, Larry; et al. The Hamilton Glass Works - c. 1865-1912. Report by the Research Committee of District VIII, Glasfax. Presented at the First Glasfax Seminar, 11-13 June 1971, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. Nice piece of research; records the results of research into the history of the company and itemizes the types of glass found in digs at the site.
"Known Canada West Medicines." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 4 (November 1976), pp.10-13. Listing and pricing of medicine bottles embossed with Canada West or C.W.
Lafreniëre, Michel, et Gagnon, François. A la découverte du passé: fouilles à la Place Royale. Québec, Ministère des Affaires culturelles, Collection civilisation du Québec no. 7 (1971). Illustrates glassware recovered from excavations in Place Royale. Covers period from mid seventeenth century to early twentieth century.
Lessard, Michel, et Marquis, Huguette. Encyclopédie des antiquités du Québec. Montréal: Editions de l'homme, 1971. "Le Verre," pp.291-318. Lessard, Michel, and Marquis, Huguette. Complete Guide to French-Canadian Antiques. Translated by Elisabeth Abbott. New York: Hart Pub., 1974. "Glass," pp.142-56. The chapter on glass has introductory sections on basic glass formula types, on manufacturing techniques, and on the examination of a piece of glass. The main part of the chapter deals with Quebec glass factories, with shorter sections on Ontario and Maritimes glass. The information on the Canadian factories is for the most part a summary of information found in Gerald Stevens's Early Canadian Glass. The chapter contains serious errors on glass technology and unsupported attributions.
MacDougall, Diane Newell. "Sourdough Thermometer." The Beaver, Outfit 304:1 (Summer 1973), pp.48-49. An amusing anecdote on the unusual use of Jamaica Ginger, Perry Davis's Vegetable Painkiller, and St. Jacob's Oil in the Yukon.
MacLaren, George. "The Trenton Glass Works; Humphrey's Glass Works; the Lamont Glass Works; the Nova Scotia Glass Company." Nova Scotia Museum Newsletter 2 (April 1958), pp.47-55. An early publication. Material is expanded and updated in later publications.
MacLaren, George. "Nova Scotia Glass." Nova Scotia Museum Occasional Paper 4, Historical Series no. 1 (Halifax, 1965). The paper presents a carefully documented history of the three New Glasgow/Trenton, N.S., glass companies and lists and illustrates products identified through digs at the sites. The only interpretation that needs additional comment is his source for deducing "increased taxation" as one of the reasons for closing the Nova Scotia Glass Co. (p.15). He quotes from an article in the New Glasgow Eastern Chronicle, 24 May 1894, identifying the information as "changes to be made in taxation on glass and listed items which would be subject to tax." The list that follows is instead a list of glass items for which an import duty of 30% ad valorem was to be charged on items imported into Canada, a duty that provided protection for Canadian glass manufacturers.
MacLaren, George. "Some Thoughts on Canadian Glass." Canadian Antiques Collector, November 1970, p.27. Some very useful warnings to collectors and researchers on accepting attributions and historical statements without sufficient support.
MacLaren, George. "Nova Scotia Glass." Nova Scotia Museum Occasional Paper 4, Historical Series no. 1, rev. ed. (Halifax, 1971). Repeats the historical section on the glass companies from the earlier paper; adds information on methods of manufacture, new pattern glass identified in the 1965-66 dig, a section on bottles outlining the Maritimes bottle trade with the U.S. and Ontario; lists bottles made in Trenton from the 1890s on. Illustrations include photographs of the glassworks, letterheads, trade cards, sherds, pressed glass tablewares, lamps, and bottles.
MacLaren, George. "Nova Scotia Glass." Canadian Antiques Collector, January/February 1972, pp.75-77. Summarizes the information in the author's previous papers.
MacLaren, George. "Nova Scotia Glass." Glass Club Bulletin no. 102 (August 1972), pp.3-8. United States collectors' club publication. Not seen.
Mcintosh, Colin. Canadian Insulators and Communication Lines. Published by author, 4603 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., n.d. Brief company histories of users and manufacturers of insulators, plus classifications of insulator shapes. A good place to start.
McMaster, Beth. "The Lakefield Glass Factory." In Collect Antiques in Ontario, edited by Doris Unitt, pp.50-51. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House Publication, [1967]. Glass cutting in Ontario. Not seen.
McNally, Paul. "Table Glass at Fort Beausejour (2E), New Brunswick." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Parks Canada, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Manuscript Report Series no. 21 (Ottawa, 1971). Internal unedited report; copies are deposited at Public Archives of Canada and in all provincial archives. Table glass from archaeological excavations, primarily second half of the eighteenth century and first third of the nineteenth century. The site had French military and British military occupations. Good survey of British glass of the period.
McNally, Paul. "Table Glass Excavated at Fort Amherst, Prince Edward Island." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History no. 9 (Ottawa, 1974), pp.109-16. Describes a small collection of excavated table glass dating to the third quarter of the eighteenth century.
McNally, Paul. "Table Glass from the Wreck of Machault." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canadian Historic Sites : Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History no. 16 (Ottawa, 1977), pp.35-44, and Lieux historiques canadiens: Cahiers d'archéologie et d'histoire no. 16 (Ottawa, 1978), pp.35-44. Discusses table glass from the Machault, a French ship scuttled in 1760 in the mouth of the Restigouche River. Although numerically large, the collection is very limited in variety of forms.
McNally, Paul. "Table Glass from the Fort at Côteau-du-Lac, Québec." Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, History and Archaeology no. 15 (Ottawa, 1977), pp.89-150. Discusses table glass from excavations at this British military site which dates from 1779 to ca. 1870.
McNally, Paul. "French Table Glass from the Fortress of Louisbourg." Forthcoming in Canada, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History, and translated in Lieux historiques canadiens: Cahiers d'archéologie et d'histoire. This should be available in late 1979 and will appear with Harris, Jane, "Eighteenth-Century French Blue-Green Bottles from the Fortress of Louisbourg," (see above). Identifies and classifies eighteenth-century French table glass, primarily drinking glasses, from the Fortress of Louisbourg's extensive archaeological collections.
Mercer, Willa. "The Penetanguishene Glass Factory." Canadian Antiques Collector, July/August 1971, pp.34-36. An interesting account both of the history of an individual company and of the process of researching that history. The factory was proposed, organized, built, and failed, all in the space of a few months in 1880 in Penetanguishene, Ont.
Meyer, John. "Olde Bottles - New Treasures: 'Spirits'." Canadian Diving Now 4, no. 5 (November 1974), no pagination. A remarkably incoherent article.
Milholland, Marion, and Milholland, Evelyn. Most About Glass Insulators. 3rd ed. Published by the authors, Route 2, Box 368, Seguim, Wash., 1975. The Milholland book is the basic reference used by insulator collectors and contains information on Canadian insulators. Fourth edition, published in 1976, is available.
Milligan, Harry J. What Is Worth Looking For in Canadian Sealers; A Colcasea's Record Book and Price Guide. Published by the author, Sarnia, Ont., 1973. "Colcasea" is translated as collector of Canadian sealers. A checklist for "Colcaseas;" not recommended for anyone else.
Milligan, Harry J. Canning Jars of Canada: A Colcasea's Record Book and Price Guide. Published by the author, Sarnia, Ont., [ca. 1974]. A second checklist, better illustrated, and for this reason somewhat useful for a non-Colcasea.
"Murano Artisans Produce Glass in Canada." Gift Buyer 23, no. 10 (October 1961), pp.26-27. Records beginnings of the "Murano Glass Company" in Montreal, a hand-blowing firm making gift items. Article goes on to describe how glass is made.
Nicks, C. "Toward a Trait List for the North Saskatchewan River in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries." Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology 1: 35-53. Based on data from archaeological excavations at five positively identified sites of the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. Includes a brief summary of glass trade beads and glass bottles.
"Notes." Journal of Glass Studies 8: 142. Announcement of excavations at Burlington Glass Works, Hamilton, Ont., by Royal Ontario Museum and the Dominion Glass Company, and at Crystal Glass Company, Crouchville, N.B., by the New Brunswick Museum.
O'Brien, Francis G. "Some Thoughts from Canada." Federation of Historical Bottle Clubs Journal 2, no. 2 (Fall 1974), pp.33-34. Comments by a bottle collector from New Brunswick on bottle collecting.
Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 1 (January 1976) — 1, no. 4. Articles listed separately in this bibliography. Contact: Bill Hogan, 6 Tasker St., St. Catharines, Ont., L2R 3Z9.
Parkland Bottle Collector no. 1 (February 1971) . Published quarterly by the Parkland Bottle Collectors Club of Spy Hill, Sask., originating in eastern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba. Not indexed separately for this bibliography. Consists of notes on companies using bottles, primarily from directories and associated material. Discusses local, national, and international bottles. This is an excellent place to start when researching late nineteenth century bottles but one should obtain all copies if possible as the same bottles are sometimes discussed in several issues. A very credible effort at assembling information and much of the credit goes to Mac Provick, editor of the publication for several years.
Paz, Octavio, and the World Crafts Council. In Praise of Hands: Contemporary Crafts of the World. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1974. Exhibition at Ontario Science Centre, Toronto.
Pierce, Edith Chown. Canadian Glass, A Footnote to History. Privately printed, 1954. One of the earliest publications on Canadian glass, it details the early attempts to locate items made at Mallorytown and the biographies of William Godkin Beach and John Herring.
Pierce, Lorne. Early Glass Houses of Nova Scotia; Being a Supplement to "Early Canadian Glass," A Catalogue of the Edith Chown Pierce & Gerald Stevens Collection at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. Privately printed, 1958. Histories of the Nova Scotia Glass Co., the Lamont Glass Co., and the Humphreys Glass Co. based on newspaper accounts and interviews with John W. Fraser, who worked as a boy in 1889-90 in the Nova Scotia Glass Co. Lists recent accessions and their sources in the Edith Chown Pierce and Gerald Stevens Collection of Early Canadian Glass.
Provick, Mac. "Beausejour's Glass Works." Canadian Antiques Collector, January 1967, pp.7-10. A good article on the history of the Manitoba Glass Company compiled from company incorporation papers, correspondence with local residents, and oral interviews. It details the history, the names of the early owners and directors, descriptions of the building, information on the glass workers, and types of products identified by surface finds on the site.
Reifschneider, John Charles. "Recollections of Beausejour and the Manitoba Glass Works 1909-1911." Manitoba Pageant 22, no. 4 (Summer 1976), pp.4-13. A glassblower who worked at the factory recalls living conditions in Beausejour and amusements of the workers, describes the factory equipment, working hours, and personnel, and names a few bottles blown at the time he worked there.
Ridley, Frank. "An Early Patent Medicine of the Canadian North.' Canadian Geographical Journal 73 (July 1966), pp.24-27. An article on Turlington's Balsam of Life which also illustrates a broadside from the 1750s advertising the medicine and showing the distinctively-shaped bottle which Turlington introduced in 1754.
Robinson, Beth. "Glass: A Classic Field for the Collector." Canadian Antiques Collector, April 1966, pp.8-9. A general article on techniques in Canadian glassmaking and on collecting glass. Includes an appeal for collectors to research Canadian glass through records and catalogues, interviews with glassblowers, and excavations on old factory sites.
Robinson, Beth. "Canadian Glass: What Has Happened?" Canadian Antiques Collector, July/August 1970, pp.14-15. Prices at Sotheby auction of Canadian glass, 27 May 1970.
Roden Bros. Limited. Rich Cut Glass. Catalogue Reprint and Price Guide. Compiled by Doris Unitt and Peter Unitt. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House Publications, 1974. Consists of reprint of 1917 Roden Bros, catalogue (pp.1-56). Includes "Price Guide Supplement, " which appears to refer to current (i.e., 1974) prices though this is not made clear, and miscellaneous material on cut glass. Catalogue paging is not original. All catalogue reprints are primary source material but should be checked for editorial alterations.
Royal Ontario Museum. The Edith Chown Pierce & Gerald Stevens Collection of Early Canadian Glass Presented to the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, in Memory of Mrs. Lorne Pierce. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1957. Historical and descriptive catalogue of the pieces and of the Canadian glass industry.
Royal Ontario Museum. One Hundred Years of Canadian Glass 1825-1925; A Special Exhibition of Canadian Glass from Public and Private Collections, Sigmund Samuel Canadiana Building, Royal Ontario Museum, September 17, 1964 - February 17, 1965. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, n.d. Lists Canadian glass companies and their dates; describes the exhibit and the glass items displayed, some 250 pieces of glass in all.
Royal Ontario Museum. Prized Possessions from Private Homes. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1968. Includes English and European glass (pp.74-86) and Canadian glass (pp.169-83), in particular three items (pp.171-72) lent by Gerald Stevens and attributed to Mallorytown Glass Works, ca. 1825-40.
Russell, Loris S. Lighting the Pioneer Ontario Home. Royal Ontario Museum Series What? Why? When? How? Where? Who? Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966. Brief pamphlet on lighting in Ontario.
Russell, Loris S. "Confederation Lamps." Canadian Antiques Collector, March 1967, pp.9-11. A useful article on lamps and lamp burners of the Confederation period.
Russell, Loris S. A Heritage of Light - Lamps and Lighting in the Early Canadian Home. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968. A fine book; would that all Canadian glass material resembled this one.
Ryder, Huia. "New Brunswick Glass." New Brunswick Museum Art Bulletin 6, no. 3 (March 1962). Brief histories of New Brunswick glass factories based on directories and newspapers.
Séguin, Robert-Lionel. "La verrerie du Haut Vaudreuil." Bulletin des recherches historiques 61: 119-28. The article traces the history of the glassmaking companies Masson & Cie, Ottawa Glass Co., and Canada Glass Works, Vaudreuil County, Quebec, through notarized property records in the Archives judiciaires, Montreal.
Settle, Ren M. "Information on a Newly Discovered Very Small 'Black Glass' Threadless." Insulators 4, no. 7 (September 1972), p.25. Published in Chico, Calif. Not seen.
Sheeler, John. "The Burlington Glass Site." Canadian Antiques Collector, April 1968, pp.7-9. Outlines the history of the Burlington Glass Works based on property records and patents. This and the following articles consist of identification of some of the twenty-five patterns found during private digs at the Burlington Glass factory site in Hamilton, Ont., in 1967. The author also indicates American factories producing the same pattern when this is known. There are enough unknown factors in the company's history, however, that the presence of these sherds on the site does not guarantee, production by the Burlington Glass Works.
Sheeler, John R. "The Burlington Glass Site." Canadian Antiques Collector, May 1968, pp.11-12.
Sheeler, John R. "Burlington Glass Site." Canadian Antiques Collector, June 1968, pp.18-20. General article outlining history of glass tablewares and techniques of production in the nineteenth century.
Sheeler, John R. "Burlington Glass Site." Canadian Antiques Collector, July 1968, pp.14-15. The article outlines three major sources for research on Canadian glass factories 1) oral interviews with glassmakers or their descendants, 2) documentation through factory records, catalogues, directories, and newspapers, and 3) excavations on the glass factory site.
Sheeler, John R. "Burlington Glass Site." Canadian Antiques Collector, August 1968, pp.8-9. Article on the quality of glass tableware patterns made in Canada using products of the Jefferson Glass Co., Toronto, Ont., compared with those of the Nova Scotia Glass Co., New Glasgow/Trenton, N.S., and the Burlington Glass Co., Hamilton, Ont.
Sheeler, John R. "Burlington Glass Site." Canadian Antiques Collector, November 1968, pp.10-12. A careful attempt is made on the basis of the two fragments found to explain the production technique for "Coin spot" and "Lattice" opalescent glass. However, this type of glass belongs to the heat-sensitive formula glass, using bone ash and arsenic, made as commercial ware from the mid 1880s on. The method of production, simpler than that described in this article, is discussed in A.C. Revi, Nineteenth Century Glass, Its Genesis and Development (New York: Nelson, 1959), chapter "Shaded Opalescent Glassware." Sheeler cites the book but not the correct chapter.
Sheeler, John R. "The Burlington Glass Site." Canadian Antiques Collector, January 1969, pp.12-13.
Shepherd, Elizabeth. "Canadian Glass Collecting." Canadian Antiques Collector, July/August 1977, pp.45-47. General article on collecting.
Shipley, Nan. "John Allward Stained Glass Windows." Canadian Antiques Collector, January/February 1977, pp.43-45. Biography of John Allward, stained glass designer in Winnipeg, and his window designs for the Hudson's Bay Company in Edmonton.
Sotheby & Co. (Canada). A Catalogue of Early Canadian Glass and Portneuf Pottery from the Collection of Hilda and Kelvin Spence of Como, Quebec Which Will be Sold at Public Auction. Toronto: Sotheby & Co. (Canada), 1970.
Sotheby & Co. (Canada). A Catalogue of Canadian Glass and Silver...Which Will be Sold by Public Auction. Toronto: Sotheby & Co. (Canada), 1971. Sale on 3-4 May 1971 of the Byington collection, Portland, Ont., and the White collection, Halifax, N.S.
Spence, Hilda, and Spence, Kelvin. A Guide to Early Canadian Glass. Toronto: Longmans, 1966. This book is intended to provide a "visual guide for the collector of early Canadian glass." The introduction gives general advice; the rest of the book is divided into five major sections: "The French Regime," "The Beginnings of the Industry," "Early Quebec," "The Late Nineteenth Century and Beyond," and "Enigmas and Wild Surmises." While the text is fairly brief, some of the ideas expressed need special comment. In the chapter on the French regime the authors construct, on the basis of several very speculative hypotheses, a firmly stated conclusion that glassmaking in Canada did exist during this period. The historical outlines in the other sections are not recommended. The photographs are very good, but many of the attributions and dates in the captions are questionable.
Spoelstra, Fred. "Spring Water Bottling Works, Niagara Falls, Ontario, 1908-1933." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 1 (January 1976), pp.8-10. History of company; four bottles pictured. Excerpted from The Pioneer Soda Bottlers of Ontario, Gazetteer and Directory. N.p., n.d. Not seen.
Spoelstra, Fred. "The Pilgrim Story, Hamilton, Ontario, 1848-1912." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 2 (April 1976), pp.3-14. Gives a brief history of the firm; illustrates and briefly describes bottles. Excerpted from The Pioneer Soda Bottlers of Ontario, Gazetteer and Directory. N.p., n.d. Not seen.
Spoelstra, Fred. "The Tune Story: Simcoe 1880 to 1883, London 1883 to 1931, Stratford 1884 to 1909, St. Catharines 1887 to 1889, St. Thomas 1892, Toronto 1890 to 1892, Orillia 1890 to 1892." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 3 (August 1976), pp.3-9. Company histories; soda water bottles; bottles illustrated. Excerpted from The Pioneer Soda Bottlers of Ontario, Gazetteer and Directory. N.p., n.d. Not seen.
Spoelstra, Fred. "Beaver Soda Water Works." Ontario Bottle Magazine 1, no. 4 (November 1976), pp.2-5. Toronto bottling company.
Squires, W.S. "Pressed Glass Exhibition at New Brunswick Museum." Canadian Antiques Collector, August 1969, pp.26-28. The article describes an exhibition of about 200 Canadian and American pressed glass items. See Canadian Antiques Collector, October 1969, p.23, for a letter from George MacLaren correcting some information in this article.
Steuben Glass. The Great Ring of Canada. New York: Steuben Glass, [ca. 1967]. Presentation piece to the people of Canada from the people of the United States on the occasion of our 100th anniversary. The piece was designed and executed at the Steuben Works, Corning, N.Y.
Stevens, Gerald F. "Early Canadian Glass." Historic Kingston. Transactions of the Kingston Historical Society no. 3 (1953-54), pp.57-69. Begins with a general discussion of glassmaking techniques and history. It is most interesting for its descriptions of Gerald Stevens's early efforts to find the Mallotrytown glass factory.
Stevens, Gerald F. In a Canadian Attic. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1955. The chapter on glass (pp.60-76) outlines types of glass, mainly American, likely to be found in Canada. The information known on Canadian glass production is summarized briefly (pp.75-76).
Stevens, Gerald F. The Canadian Collector: Glass, Pottery, Furniture, Firearms of the Nineteenth Century. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1957. The chapter on early Canadian glass (pp.3-19) outlines the information known on the factories at Mallorytown, Ont., and in Vaudreuil County, Que., and the John Spence Company of Montreal, St. Johns Glass Works, Saint-Jean, Que., Hamilton Glass Works, Hamilton, Ont., St. Lawrence Glass Works, Montreal, and John Herring's Napanee Glass Works, Napanee, Ont.
Stevens, Gerald. Early Canadian Glass. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1961. This is the first full-length book published on Canadian glass. It remains the standard source book although the information of some of its sections has been corrected and greatly revised by more recently published articles in the Canadian Antiques Collector. Stevens' approach to glass is as a Canadian nationalist collector-historian. His success in proving to Canadians that glassmaking was a part of their cultural heritage to be proud of and to preserve is measured in the legions of Canadian glass collectors today. The book is arranged geographically by province (Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia) and then arranged chronologically within province by the starting date of the factory. There are two additional sections — on Canadian stained and cut glass and on twentieth-century factories.
There is no index, an inconvenient omission for any book. While there are no footnotes, documentary sources are usually indicated in the text and include directories, newspapers, early trade and manufacturing reports, and correspondence with Canadian glass factory managers or workers or their descendants. Oral sources are not generally adequately detailed. Where this is particularly noticeable is in the attribution of specific items to individual factories. While the whimseys are carefully recorded, commercial items fare less well and the reader is left with the uneasy feeling that the collector has overwhelmed the historian and failed to heed his own advice: "...it is well to call in question any source until it has been proven reliable by cross-checking" (p.38) and "Conclusions as to the authenticity of glass must be approached with great care" (p.64). Examples of insufficient documentation are: Pilgrim Bros. & Co., Hamilton, Ont., bottle (p.27); commercial cast glass weights (p.48); Fishscale lamp (p.57); Sunken Bull's-Eye covered butter dish and pressed Greek Key sherds (p.63); Spence vigil lights (pp.117-18); Beaver goblet (p.129); Ottawa Exhibition goblet (p.130); Pointed Bull's-Eye bowl and goblet (p.162); "Concordia Salus" plate (p.166).
Stevens, Gerald F. In a Canadian Attic. Rev. ed. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1963. The book is divided into provincial sections for the nineteenth century. In the section "Canadian Glass, 1900-1925," based on catalogues published by Canadian glass companies, new information on specific products is given. The chapter on glass (pp.122-68) deals entirely with the history of Canadian glass companies and their products.
Stevens, Gerald. "Canadian Glass." Canadian Antiques Collector, September/October 1964, pp.12-15. Reprints pages 129 and 86-89 of the author's Early Canadian Glass (see above).
Stevens, Gerald F. "Brief Glory of Canadian Glass." Canadian Art 22 (January 1965), pp.48-50. Describes Royal Ontario Museum exhibition "One Hundred Years of Canadian Glass, c. 1825-1925."
Stevens, Gerald F. "Early Ontario Glass." Royal Ontario Museum Series What? Why? When? How? Where? Who? Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965. A general article on glassmaking in Ontario based on the author's earlier work.
Stevens, Gerald F. Canadian Glass, c. 1825-1925. Toronto: Ryerson, 1967. The information is arranged by province and then chronologically by starting date of the glass factory. For some of the factories the information from Early Canadian Glass has been summarized or simply referred to. However, there is also a great deal of new historical information and many additional glass factories are described. For the Sydenham Glass Co., Wallaceburg, Ont., new information from the Wallaceburg Herald and the Wallaceburg News is published in the form of extracts for the period 1895-1913. New Ontario factories documented include the Erie Glass Co., Port Colborne (ca. 1893 - ca. 1898), the Foster Glass Works, Port Colborne (1895-99), and the Ontario Glass Co., Kingsville, (1899-1902). For Quebec the Dominion Glass Co. (1913-) and Demarais and Robitaille (1924-25), both of Montreal, are documented. For the Western provinces the book details the twentieth-century factories of the Dominion Glass Co. — Redcliffe, Alta. (1913-), Manitoba Glass Mfg. Co., Beausejour, Man. (1907-14), and Dominion Glass, Beausejour, Man. (1913-ca. 1918) — and of the Crystal Glass Co., New Westminster, B.C. (1907-08).
"The Personnel" gives biographies of many early glassblowers. "Documentation" reproduces extracts from eighteen different catalogues of Canadian glass companies from 1902 to about 1920 and includes tablewares, bottles, lamps, lamp chimneys, milk bottles, and insulators. In "Excavation" the author describes the finds of the 1966 dig at the site of the Burlington Glass Works, Hamilton, Ont. In addition there are chapters on Canadian cut glass and on the work of the lampworker. The appendices list several other companies plus dating symbols for Dominion Glass (Wallaceburg, Ont.) bottles from 1940 to 1943. There is also a glossary of descriptive terms, tools, and techniques. Again with this volume there is no index and the sources of documentation are usually indicated in the text. In Early Canadian Glass a few items were attributed to specific factories with no supporting information; in this publication they are simply stated as fact with no additional supporting data. This book, used in conjunction with Early Canadian Glass, is the most carefully documented and standard work on the subject of Canadian glass.
Stevens, Gerald. "Canadian Cut Glass." Canadian Antiques Collector, December 1967, pp.7-9. An article on the Gundy-Clapperton and Clapperton Cut Glass Companies of Toronto. It gives the history and the marks used to identify their glass, and quotes a 1 May 1913 article on the factory which describes the steps in cutting, names several patterns, and praises the intaglio cutware. The article is illustrated with several pages from the company's catalogues and with several examples of cut glass.
Stevens, Gerald. "Ontario Glass." Canadian Antiques Collector, May 1971, pp.35-37. Based on earlier work.
Stieb, Ernst w. "Tinctures, Salt-Mouths, and Carboys." Bulletin of the Ontario College of Pharmacy 20, no. 2 (April 1971), pp.42-43. Describes the restoration of the Niagara Apothecary, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont., and includes some discussion of containers used.
Thompson, John Beswarick. "Vaudreuil Glass Industry." Canadian Antiques Collector, November/December 1972, pp.39-42. A well-researched and -footnoted article correcting much of the earlier confusion about the factories operating under several different names in Vaudreuil County, Que., from 1845 to the mid 1870s.
Thuro, Catherine M.V. "Lomax Lamps." Canadian Antiques Collector, November/December 1975, pp.26-30. The article is excerpted from the book by the same author, Oil Lamps: The Kerosene Era in North America (see below). It gives the patent details of the Lomax lamp and subsequent patents used with the initial one and illustrates the different varieties of lamp using the patent.
Thuro, Catherine M.V. Oil Lamps: The Kerosene Era in North America. Des Moines, Iowa: Wallace-Homestead Book Co., 1976. A very carefully researched book on the specialized area of glass lamps, based on American lamp and burner patents, glass company catalogues, and the author's extensive collection of some 1500 lamps. The author has been very careful in making any Canadian attributions. Profusely and well illustrated. Highly recommended.
Tod, Jack H. "Gisborne Pattern." Insulators 7, no 3 (May 1975), p.17. Published in Chico, Calif. Not seen.
Treasures from the Water. A Display of Items of Historical Interest Found by Ontario Divers. Jan.22-Feb.5. West Hill, Ont.: Scarborough College, University of Toronto, 1976. Display of glass and ceramic bottles, clay pipes, two crocks, and a bowl. Site locations are not indicated and many of the bottles come from South America.
Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter. Treasury of Canadian Glass. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House, 1969. An alphabetical listing of pattern names, giving American references to the patterns. The book is well and profusely illustrated, showing a variety of forms in each pattern. Many additional attributions are made to Canadian companies with no supporting evidence. For the section on glass in Canadian silver plate see comment below on Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter, Canadian Silver, Silver Plate and Related Glass. Not recommended as a reliable reference.
Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter. American and Canadian Goblets, [vol. I]. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House, 1970. Includes index and price guide supplement. The book is a good visual guide to North American goblet patterns. For pattern identification the earlier American references are cited and alternate pattern names given. For many patterns identified as Canadian the text either gives no supporting evidence for statements of Canadian production or refers to earlier texts where attributions are unsupported.
Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter. Canadian Silver, Silver Plate and Related Glass. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House, 1970. In the preface (p.11) and in the "Related Glass" section (pp.201-22), the authors have accepted without question a statement made by Gerald Stevens in Canadian Glass c. 1825-1925 (p.215):
Prior to the dig on the Burlington site, the researcher was confronted with the question, "What about the cruet bottles, pickle jars, etc., made from glass and contained in or associated with silver plated metal stands, collars, lids, handles, etc.?" The answer would be: If the piece or piece of glass is of a quality or composition of glass which is known to have been produced in a Canadian glass factory and the silver plated stands, etc., are signed by contemporary silversmiths or metal workers who are documented as having been active in Canada during the period 1875-1909, the glass object or objects should be credited to Canada.
However, by this date the same "quality or composition" of glass was being made by many different North American factories. The 1890 tariff regulations granted Canadian silver plate manufacturers a tariff reduction: "Crystal and decorated glass tableware made expressly for mounting with silver-plated trimmings, when imported by manufacturers of plated ware, - 20 per cent." This was a reduction in the tariff of ten percent from the general duty of thirty percent on glass imports. It means that glass associated with Canadian silver plate cannot be "credited" to Canadian production on the basis suggested.
Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter. Bottles in Canada. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House, 1972. Probably the best known of the Canadian bottle books, this is a good introduction to bottle collecting but in no way can it be regarded as the definitive book on Canadian bottles. The book is a collage of information rather than a cohesive picture. It is particularly weak when discussing eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century bottles and manufacturing processes; the dates are not reliable and the manufacturing processes are poorly described. Glass is notoriously difficult to photograph, and the results in this publication are generally good.
Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter. Unitt's Across Canada Bottle Price Guide. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House, 1973. Not seen.
Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter. American and Canadian Goblets, vol. 2. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House, 1975. See comment for vol. 1 above.
Unitt, Doris, and Unitt, Peter, eds. Book of Marks, Antiques and Collectables. 2nd ed. Peterborough, Ont.: Clock House Publications, 1976. Contains marks on silver, silver plate, ceramics, and glass compiled from a number of sources. The book is purse-sized and would be handy for the wandering collector. For information, however, one should use the sources which the Unitts themselves used; this is easier said than done as they have not indicated their sources except in a general bibliography at the end of the book. It would have been courteous to list more complete references at the end of each section. The glass section is confusingly organized, has no indication as to how the mark is found — embossed, acid etched, or paper label — or on what types of wares. Questionable attributions are presented with no qualifying statements.
Urquhart, O. Bottlers and Bottles, Canadian. Published by S. and O. Urquhart, 10 Fir Avenue, Toronto, Ont., 1976. The first sections discuss glass collecting and manufacturing — the best discussion of manufacturing in any of the Canadian bottle books. Most of the book consists of brief chapters on different types of bottles — text followed by a profusion of drawings. The final section is a listing of Canadian bottlers divided by type and province and based on directory listings. The book is indexed. Although this is the most thoroughly researched book about Canadian bottles on the market, it suffers from some drawbacks. The text for the different bottle types tends to be unconnected and does not correspond to the bottles in the illustrations. The text is based on late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century sources but the bottles are from the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There is, consequently, no historical information on the bottles illustrated. The illustrations are good, showing bases as well as "fronts," but the layout is very crowded and the reader can have difficulty matching the bases and comments with the correct bottles.
Vallières, Jean. "Le soufflage du verre: art perdu et retrouvé." Forthcoming in Québec, Ministère des Affaires culturelles, Collection civilisation du Québec, série arts et métiers. Scheduled to be published in autumn of 1978. A technical book describing how to make glass, where to get the materials, etc. Written by a studio glassblower working near Quebec City.
Vienneau, Azor. The Bottle Collector. Halifax: Petheric Press, 1969. Depends heavily on George MacLaren's work for Nova Scotia glass products. The dating section should be used with caution, particularly the appealing drawings on p.14. An enjoyable introduction to bottle collecting in Nova Scotia.
Watson, George, and Skrill, Robert. Western Canadian Bottle Collecting. Nanaimo, B.C.: Western Canadian Bottle Collecting, 721 Dogwood Road, Nanaimo, B.C., 1971. Consists primarily of photographs with brief captions. Complete embossing on bottles is not recorded; prices are included. Photographs are useful.
Watson, George; Skrill, Robert; and Heidt, Jim; et al. Western Canadian Bottle Collecting - Book 2. N.p., B.C.: Evergreen Press, 1972. Photographs, brief captions, notes on some beer and soda water bottlers of British Columbia; prices. Sources of historical information not given but appear to be directories.
Watt, Robert D. "Heraldic Stained Glass in Vancouver." Canadian Antiques Collector, May/June 1976, pp.91-95. A good article on the use of legal coats-of-arms and decorative heraldic forms in stained glass windows in Vancouver, 1890-1940.
Webster, Donald B. "New Form of Pattern Glass for Collectors." Canadian Antiques Collector, June 1970, pp.22, 24. Milk bottles. A tongue-in-cheek suggestion that collectors of Canadian glass should not neglect a form of glass that generally stopped being used in Canada in the mid 1950s — the round milk bottle.
Werstuik, John. "The McMicking Insulator." Insulators 9, no. 6 (August 1977), p.10. Published in Chico, Calif. Not seen.
Westward Collector Quarterly 1, no. 1 (.1973) - 1, no. 4 (1974). Published by Westward Collector Publishing Limited, Nanaimo, B.C., George A. Watson, editor; Robert J. Skrill, assistant editor. Not indexed for this bibliography. Photographs of bottle shows, collectors and collections, "collectables," short articles.
Woodward Stores Limited. The Shopping Guide of the West: Woodward's Catalogue 1898-1953. Vancouver: J.J. Douglas, 1977. Reprint, with introduction by Robert D. Watt, of the 1912 and 1929 catalogues.